चीनलाई नेपालमा जम्न नदिने ब्रिटिश नीति

नेपाललाई चीन देखाएर तर्साउने र आफू पनि तर्सने ब्रिटिश–भारतीय नीति अद्यापि कायम छ।

रेजिडेन्ट स्मिथले तराईतिरबाट आउने बाटोका ठाउँको नाउँ समेत खुलेको नक्शा आफूले नपाएको तर उत्तरतर्फको नक्शा चाहिं हेरेको बताउँदै नेपालको बीच भागको नक्शा दिनुभए मेहरवानी हुने थियो भन्दा चन्द्रशमशेर महाराजले खोज्न लगाएको छु भने। तर, त्यो नक्शा दिन चाहिं गाह्रो पर्ने जनाए।

त्यसका लागि भारदारहरूसँग सल्लाह गर्नुपर्ने र भारदारहरूले महाराज अंग्रेजहरूसँग धेरै खुल्न लागेको भन्दै कुरा काट्न थालेको बताउँदै महाराजले त्यसमा उनीहरूलाई दोष लगाउने ठाउँ पनि नभएको बताए।

“तपाईंहरूको व्यवहारले त्यस्तै देखाइरहेको छ”, महाराजले रेजिडेन्टलाई भने, “इण्डिया गभर्मेन्टले नेपाललाई इण्डियाको नेटिभ स्टेट जस्तो ठान्यो भनेर हाम्रा मान्छेका मनमा गोसा परेको छ।”

महाराजले नेपाललाई भारतको नेटिभ स्टेटमा गाभेर लेखेको हालसालैको इम्पोरियल गजेटियर पत्रिका नै देखाएर रेजिडेन्टलाई नाजवाफ पारे। त्यो देखेर नेपालीले साह्रै नराम्रो मानेका र इण्डिया गभर्मेन्टको आलोचना गरेको महाराजले बताए।

अघि रेजिडेन्ट गर्लिस्टोन यहाँ हुँदा एक जना सर्भेयर गोप्य रूपले नेपाल पसेर भोट जाने बाटोघाटोको सर्वे गरेछन्। खर्च सकिएर रेजिडेन्सीमा आएपछि कुरो खुल्यो।

त्यस प्रसंगमा स्मिथले ‘हाम्रो सरकारलाई भोटमा चीन आयो भने नेपालमा पनि सरासर आउन सक्छ भन्ने चिन्ता रहेकोले भोट जाने बाटोघाटोको जानकारी राखिराख्नु आवश्यक ठानेको हुनसक्छ’ भन्दै महाराजको चित्त बुझाउन खोजे।

त्यसलाई ठाडै अस्वीकार गर्दै महाराजले ‘त्यो हुनै नसक्ने कुरो हो’ भने। महाराजले ‘चीनले नेपाललाई भोट जस्तो भनेको नजानेको नसुनेको बताउँदै प्रतिनिधिमण्डल जाने कुरा साविकदेखि चलिआएको औपचारिकता मात्र हो, नेपाल चीनको हुने अरू कुनै संभावना छैन, पहिले चीनकै रोहवरमा सन्धि हुँदा भोटले हामीलाई सालना ५० हजार तिर्ने बन्दोबस्त भएको बताए।

मुख्य कुरा के छ भने, त्यसबेला ब्रिटिश भारतका अधिकारीहरू चीनको त्रास देखाएर नेपालमा आफ्नो प्रभाव जमाउन चाहन्थे। महाराजले पनि त्यो अनुभव गरेकै थिए। ब्रिटिश अधिकारीहरू भने सधैं यही कुरा उठाइरहन्थे। चीनको हाउगुजी देखाएर नेपाललाई कजाउने ब्रिटिश सरकारको नेपाल नीति थियो। आश्चर्य, आज डेढ सय वर्षपछि स्वतन्त्र भारतको नेपाल नीति त्यही छ।

“चीनलाई नेपालमा जम्न ब्रिटिश सरकारले कहिल्यै दिने छैन”, सं. १९६४ मा अंग्रेज रेजिडेन्ट जेम्यानर्स स्मिथले बोलेको यही वाक्य अहिले २०७३ सालमा पनि स्वतन्त्र भारतका नेपालनीतिका जानिफकारहरू दोहोर्‍याइरहेका छन्। भारतले बारम्बार नाकाबन्दी गरेर नसताएको भए नेपालले पुरानो मित्रराष्ट्र चीनसँग बेपार, पारवहन तथा यातायात सन्धि गर्थ्यो त? अहिले भारतमा सञ्चार माध्यमले कोकोहोलो मच्चाइरहेका छन्, के भन्नु?

नेपालको परराष्ट्र नीतिमा एकरूपता छैन। नेतैपिच्छे, पार्टी पिच्छेका आ–आफ्ना नीति छन्। सार्वभौम र स्वतन्त्र राष्ट्र नेपालले आफ्ना मित्रराष्ट्रहरूसँग समानताका आधारमा सन्धि–सम्झौताहरू गर्ने दिन कहिले आउला? तर, यो अवश्यम्भावी कुरा हो, हुनैपर्छ।

सन् १९०७ सेप्टेम्बर मैन्हाको ३ तारीख मुताविक १९६४ मीती भाद्र १६ गते रोजका दिन व्यहान रजिडन्ट जेम्यानर्स स्मीथ साहेव प्राइभेट मुलाकातलाई ८ वजे सिंहदरबारमा आई कुरा कहानि भयाको टीपन।

रजि– तपायींबाट यौटा नक्सामा १ जना डाक्टरले हेटौडाबाट काठमाडौं यकै दिनमा आयाको बाटोको निसान दियाको छ भनि भंनुहुन्थ्यो. त्यो नक्सा मैले भेटायन.. तपायींबाट पठाई दिनु भयाको नेपालका उत्तरतरफका सेवाना तरफका नक्सा देखें तराई तरफको सिकारी नक्सा पनि हेरी सकेको छु. बीच भागको नक्सा पनि अवस्य हुनुपर्छ. मेहरवानीसाथ मलाई हेर्न दिनुहोस्

श्री ३– त्यो नक्सा मैले खोजन लायाको छु. पाइयो भने पठाई दिनुहुनेछु तर येकदम् हतपति पठाउन भने ठीक हुने छैन कीन भने सो पठाउनाले मैले साह्रै खुल्ला मै काम गरे भनि भारदारहरूका मनमा पर्न जाने र नीको मान्ने छैनन् हाम्रो भारादारहरूका मन्मा के परेको छ भने इंडीया गवरमेन्टको मुराद हामीलाई पनि इंडीयाको यौटा नेटीभ इस्टेट जस्तो गर्नापटी झुकेको छ भनि ठानेका छन् तीनीहरूमा कसै कसैले हाल नया छापियेको इम्पोरियेल गजेटीयरमा नेपाललाई पनी नेटीभ इस्टेटहरूमा सामेल गरी लेखेको हुनाले तस्मा नराम्रो कमेट गरे.

रजि– यो कीताप तपायींसंग छ की?

श्री ३– छ. (भन्या हुकुम मै लीन पठाई देखाई बक्सेपछी) यस्तै कुराहरूले गर्दा तपायींहरूसंग खुल्ला भै काम् गर्नालाई मुस्कील परेको रजि– पुरानु ग्याजेटीयर पनि तपायींसंग छ की

श्री ३– छ म पठाई दिउंला

रजि– मिष्टर गर्लीष्टन यहां रजीडन्ट छंदा इंडीया गवरमेन्टबाट १ जना सर्भेयरलाई गोप्य तवरसंग नेपाल पठायाका रहेछन् र नीज सर्भेयर आई खर्च सकेको हुनाले मिष्टर गर्लिष्टनसंग खर्च माग्न आयेछन् र नीजले सो सर्भेयर आयाको खवर अघिबाट थाहा नपायाको हुनाले मलाई थाहा नदि कीन पठायाको भनि उजुर गरेका रहेछ र गभरमेन्ट इंडीयाले तेस्को जवावमा सर्भे डिपार्टमेन्ट आफ्नै मनासीवले पठायाका हुन् भनि लेखि पठाया छन्. टीवेट्मा नेपालबाट जाने आउने बाटो कति रहेछ भनि जान्नाको गभरमेन्टको इरादा छ. गभरमेन्टलाई टिवेट्मा चीन बलियो भो भने नेपालमा सरासर आउन सक्ने होला भंने दहसत मानेका छं

श्री ३– तेस्तो हुन सक्ला भंने लाग्दैन

रजि– चीन्ले नेपाललाई आफ्नु हो भनि भंन सक्ने छैन भनि सम्झेका छ

श्री ३– चीनले तेस्तो दावा गर्छ भंने लाग्दैन नेपालले चीनलाई मांनुपर्छ भंने लीखित पत्र अहद भयाको केहि छैन खालि टिवेट्संगको अहदमा ५। ५ वर्षमा मिसन् जाने गरेको केहि होइन

रजि– चीनलाई नेपालमा जम्न ब्रिटीस सर्कारले कैल्है दिने छैन. चीनको यांहा रजिडंट पनि छैन

श्री ३– हो, हाम्रो चीनसंग तेस्तो अहद पनि केही छैन. अघि १ पल्ट टीवेट्संग अहद हुंदा साल्को ५०,००० दिने कबुल गरेका थीये टीवेट् तरफको र चीन्तरफको पुरानु कागज पत्रहरू दुरुस्त रहेका छैनन. बृटिस पट्टिको कागजपत्र भने दुरुस्तसाथ अफिसमा रहेको छ

रजि– खचराहरू माथी नेपालको हक् कसरी पुगेको रहेछ

श्री ३– तेस्को लीखत कागजपत्र खोजेको केहि पाइयेको छैन. येस् वीसयेमा हाम्रा ल्हासामा रहेका वकिललाई पनि लेखी पठायाको छु. कीसनसींको वयान तपायींकाहा पठाई दीयाको थीयें. त्यो वयान् हीजो अस्ति नै पठाउन आटेको थीयें तर कसैले सो पठाउन हुदैन भनि भनेको हुनाले १।२ दिन ढीलो हुन गयाको हो. तीनीहरूलाई मैले के भने भने हाकिमहरूले दोस्ताना देखायेनौ भने बृटिसले मात्र हामीउपर कसरी दोस्ती देखाउलान्. सावीक् नभयाको भनिमात्र १९ नाले कसरी कां होला. हामी उपर केहि वदनीयेत् भयाको भया हामीलाई बंदुक खजाना कीन दीन के भनि भने वाहापछीमात्र सो वयान् पठाउनामा मंजुर गरे

रजि– सो वयान पठाउनु हुन्न भनि कसले भनेका हुं

श्री ३– माफ राखनु होस्. तीनीहरूको नाउं म भंन चाहदीन

रजि– इडीया गभरमेन्टले तपायींको यो दोस्तीको काम् बढिया मानको छ

श्री ३– नीज कीसन्सिंको बयान् लिदा दस्तुर माफिक् बकपत्रै गराई लीनालाई सो गर्नाले आफ्नु दील खोली बयान नगर्ने हुनाले कुरा कहानीबाट नीजसंगको खवर लीयेको हो

 

Source: https://www.himalkhabar.com/news/169

The World – Gautam Buddha

Do not follow a bad law.
Do not live in thoughtlessness.
Do not follow wrong ideas.
Do not be attached to the world.

Arise; do not be thoughtless.
Follow the path of virtue.
The virtuous rest in bliss in this world and in the next.
Follow the path of virtue; do not follow the wrong path.
The virtuous rest in bliss in this world and in the next.

Look upon the world as a bubble;
look on it as a mirage.
Whoever looks thus upon the world
is not seen by the sovereign of death.
Come, look at this world resembling a painted royal chariot.
The foolish are immersed in it,
but the wise are not attached to it.

The one who formerly was thoughtless
and afterwards became conscientious
lights up this world like the moon when freed from a cloud.
The one whose wrong actions are eradicated by good conduct
lights up this world like the moon when freed from a cloud.

This world is blinded; only a few can see here.
Like birds escaped from the net, a few go to heaven.
The swans go on the path of the sun;
miraculously they fly through the sky.
The wise are led out of this world,
when they have conquered Mara and the tempter’s armies.

Whoever violates the one law, who speaks lies,
and scoffs at another world,
there is no wrong that one will not do.

Misers do not go to the world of the gods;
only fools do not praise liberality;
the wise find joy in generosity,
and because of it become blessed in the other world.

Better than sovereignty over the earth,
better than going to heaven,
better than dominion over all the worlds
is the reward of reaching the stream.

Impurity – Gautam Buddha

You are now like a withered leaf; 

the messengers of death have come near you. 

You stand at the threshold of your departure. 

Have you made provision for your journey

Make yourself an island; work hard; be wise. 

When your impurities are purged and you are free from guilt, 

you will enter into the heavenly world of the noble ones.
Your life is coming to an end; 

you are in the presence of death. 

There is no rest stop on the way, 

and you have made no provision for your journey.
Make yourself an island; work hard; be wise; 

when your impurities are purged and you are free from guilt, 

you will not again enter into birth and old age.
As a smith removes the impurities from silver, 

so let the wise remove the impurities from oneself

one by one, little by little, again and again.
Just as rust from iron eats into it

though born from itself, 

so the wrong actions of the transgressor

lead one to the wrong path.
Dull repetition is the impurity of prayers; 

lack of repair is the impurity of houses; 

laziness is the impurity of personal appearance; 

thoughtlessness is the impurity of the watcher. 

Bad conduct is the impurity of a woman; 

stinginess is the impurity of the giver; 

wrong actions are the impurity of this world and the next. 

The worst impurity of all is the impurity of ignorance. 

Mendicants, throw off that impurity

and become free of all impurities.
Life seems easy for one who is shameless, 

who is a crowing hero, a mischief-maker, 

an insulting, impudent, and corrupt person. 

But life seems difficult for one who is modest, 

who always looks for what is pure, 

who is detached, quiet, clear, and intelligent.
Whoever destroys life, whoever speaks falsely, 

whoever in this world takes what is not given to them, 

whoever goes to another person’s spouse, 

and whoever gives oneself to drinking intoxicating liquors, 

even in this world they dig up their own roots. 

Know this, human, that the unrestrained are in a bad way. 

Do not let greed and wrong-doing bring you long suffering.
People give according to their faith

or according to their pleasure. 

Thus whoever worries about food and drink given to others

will find no peace of mind day or night. 

Whoever destroys that feeling, tearing it out by the root, 

will truly find peace of mind day and night.
There is no fire like lust, no chain like hate; 

there is no snare like folly, no torrent like craving. 

The faults of others are easy to see; 

our own are difficult to see. 

A person winnows others’ faults like chaff, 

but hides one’s own faults, 

like a cheater hides bad dice. 

If a person is concerned about the faults of others

and is always inclined to be offended, 

one’s own faults grow and one is far from removing faults.
There is no path in the sky; 

one does not become an ascetic outwardly. 

People delight in worldly pleasures;

the perfected ones are free from worldliness.
There is no path in the sky; 

one does not become an ascetic outwardly. 

No creatures are eternal, 

but the awakened ones are never shaken. 

Joy – Gautam Buddha

Let us live in joy, not hating those who hate us.

Among those who hate us, we live free of hate. 

Let us live in joy, 

free from disease among those who are diseased. 

Among those who are diseased, let us live free of disease. 

Let us live in joy, free from greed among the greedy. 

Among those who are greedy, we live free of greed. 

Let us live in joy, though we possess nothing. 

Let us live feeding on joy, like the bright gods.
Victory breeds hate, for the conquered is unhappy. 

Whoever has given up victory and defeat

is content and lives joyfully.
There is no fire like lust, no misfortune like hate; 

there is no pain like this body; 

there is no joy higher than peace.
Craving is the worst disease; 

disharmony is the greatest sorrow. 

The one who knows this truly

knows that nirvana is the highest bliss.
Health is the greatest gift; 

contentment is the greatest wealth; 

trusting is the best relationship; 

nirvana is the highest joy.
Whoever has tasted the sweetness

of solitude and tranquillity

becomes free from fear and sin

while drinking the sweetness of the truth. 

The sight of the noble is good; 

to live with them is always joyful.
Whoever does not see fools will always be happy. 

Whoever associates with fools suffers a long time. 

Being with fools, as with an enemy, is always painful.
Being with the wise, like meeting with family, is joyful. 

Therefore, one should follow the wise, the intelligent, 

the learned, the patient, the dutiful, the noble; 

one should follow the good and wise, 

as the moon follows the path of the stars. 

माधव प्रसाद घिमिरे

Madhav Prasad Ghimire
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Madhav Ghimmire is a living legend. Born in 1919, he is among the last of the older generation of poets in Nepal. His contemporaries – Bal Krishna Sama, Laxmi Prasad Devkota, and Siddhicharan Shrestha – have become historical figures in the annals of Nepalese literature; Ghimire is the only link to their past. A time in which these poets created some of the most powerful verses in Nepali literature. Today, their works are studied in school, college, and university.

Madhav Ghimire does echo the past. His eyes twinkle as he fondly remembers old times. At this point in his life, he is eight-one years old, he expresses contentment regarding his personal and professional experiences. Ghimire knows his destiny has been proven and he is pleased about it. His childhood, youth, and adulthood are now memories he reflects upon calmly. His innate love for the study of literature has made possible the growth of his poetic genius. As he recites a few lines from “Rupa Rani”, one can appreciate the rhythmic use of his words. What comes to mind is the play of sunlight on water, the breeze soft on the skin, and the sensation of lightness. Ghimire caresses words like an ardent lover; he seeks for emotional gratification in his creations and is comforted.

His childhood was spent in Lamjung District – among the hills, trees, rivers, and birds of rural Nepal and he grew up playing nearby cowsheds – the herders, cows and calves his close companions. Ghimire’s father was the second son in the family and was responsible for looking after cattle. They lived as a joint family and had enough to go by. The eldest son looked over household affairs and farming. Ghimire’s father along with the herders would stay high up in the lekh for several months in the cowshed and during winter, they would bring the cattle down to graze in the besi. Eight-year-old Ghimire would often accompany them and during his stay, loved having rice and milk amidst surroundings rich with natural resources. Sometimes when the cattle were fed salt, a customary practice in cow herding, his father would also add salt to young Ghimire’s meal.

Since he was most of the time away from home with his father, he was unable to develop close ties with his cousins. He became used to his loneliness and found solace in the natural beauty of his environment. In this way, the poet’s relationship with nature became a bond he feels as strongly about today. “It has been years since I last visited my village. I know the cattle are no longer taken up to the same area for grazing, but I desire to visit old haunts. Most probably I won’t recognize anyone in the village, but I feel the same about the place. I can feel the river flowing, the small trees growing; they must be big trees by now, and the heat of the sun on the riverbank’s stones. About this time, mid-April, kafuls and aisalus fruit would be ripening and bird songs would burst from the trees.

Ghimire’s mother died when he was about one and half year old, he tries to remember her but the memories are old. What he does acknowledge is the longing he had for her – to be held in her warm embrace and experience her compassion. “I coveted the way my jetho buba and jetho muwa (his father’s elder brother and sister-in-law) showered their affection on their son, Mohan Lal, my cousin who is about three to four months older than me. I also wanted to hear the sound of my mother’s voice calling my name. I wanted her to protect me like a hen with her chicks. I searched for the same kind of privilege I felt my cousin received from his parents. My jetho muwa cared for me, but I couldn’t help feeling insecure knowing she was not my mother. I think this is my childhood’s only greatest loss.

“Sometimes I thought my jetho buba and jetho muwa were indifferent to me. I was under the impression that my jetho buba wanted his son to do better in life – study hard and get an education. My grandmother adored me, but I think she felt uncomfortable to openly display affection on me. Maybe she thought it would displease her eldest son and jetho buhari.

“My father was always happy to see me after his sojourns in the lekh. He loved pampering me. I feel however, no matter how much a father loves his children, I think a mother’s love is irreplaceable. I desired to call my jetho muwa or grandmother ‘mother’ and whenever my father was around and heard me call them, he would come towards me, lift me up, and carry me. My father was sensitive about my need for my mother. I think he understood how much I wanted her.

“My father enjoyed singing. He had a good voice and his listeners would become enraptured. Especially when he recited slokas, poetical lines, they could feel the emotion in his voice and the experience would bring tears to their eyes. I was always impressed with the way my father sang; I also wanted to sing like him. Maybe unconsciously his singing and the dancing that went on in my village developed in me a desire to do something creative and beautiful. Later on, I wrote many lyrics besides poems.”

Proper educational opportunities were lacking in Ghimire’s village during his childhood. Someone who could set tithis, auspicious dates, for events like “marriages”, “Ekadasi” or “Osi” or someone who could do basic letter writing, reading and arithmetic was considered educated. “I used to sit on the pidi, outside our house and write Ka, Kha, Ga, Gha (Nepali alphabets)… on the ground with a bamboo stick. I remember a jogi, holyman, used to live on our farmland. He taught us English alphabets from an old grammar book he had; text books were non-existent then. I found studying alphabets through illustrations enjoyable.

“My father wanted me to receive educational opportunities jetho buba wished for his son. He knew unless he made the effort, his elder brother would show no interest in me. So he thought it over and decided to send me, I think when I was about twelve years old, to a jotishi, astrologer; astrology played an important role in our family and village life. This was probably the beginning of my formal education.

“Afterwards, a relative suggested to my father to send me to a school when I was fourteen or fifteen years old. It was called Bhasa Patshala, Language School, and was situated five kosh, about one or two hours walk away from our village. The guru, teacher was a Sanskrit pandit, scholar and was looking for pupils who wished to learn Sanskrit. Since our relative knew I had studied astrology and could read and write, he thought my educational base would help me study without problems. He was right because I enjoyed myself and did well.

“Depending on the season, the number of students in our class would vary. Sometimes there would be 15 to 20 of us and at other times, just about two to four students. During winter, the number of students would increase to 40 because there would be less much farm work. On the whole, I think this unrestricted kind of education suited me. Since I was attentive and listened carefully to what our teacher said, I was given a lot of attention by him when there were few students. Once I received the Ramayan as a prize. I read it, I also read the Mahabharat, and from there I selected poems of Lekhnath Poudyal. The difference I found between the religious books and Lekhnath’s poetry was the writing confidence I gained with the latter. I was able to approach Lekhnath’s work without being overwhelmed with the religious, historical or cultural context of the Ramayan and Mahabharat. Lekhnath provided me an example of how a contemporary person could create literature without feeling inhibited by his ordinariness (human weaknesses).

“I tried to create poetry and showed it to my teacher. I wasn’t sure what I had to write; the only thing I remember was I wanted to write. He liked my poems and encouraged me to continue. I sent one to the Gorkhapatra, a weekly at that time, now a national daily and it got published. I was amazed. Someone told me I would most probably become a poet. I was further amazed. To people it seemed the word ‘poet’ connoted greatness. In my experience, they were willing to read what I wrote and accepted it as literature. I think my first inspiration came from here.

“For about three years, I remained at Bhasa Patshala. Then, one day, my teacher’s younger brother returned from Kathmandu after giving his exams at Durbar High School. He told me that in ‘Nepal’, a popular name used for Kathmandu in those days had many learned people and were considered maha (great) gurus. When I heard him describe the golden temples I became in awe of ‘Nepal’; such a place could only exist in my imagination. I suddenly felt the urge to change my present state of education as well as see the world. I also knew I had already reached my potential as a student at Bhasa Patshala. By this time, my father and jetho buwa had started living separate.

“Without telling anyone at home and with seven mohar (a mohar is 50 paisa today) in my pocket, I associated myself with a trader going to Kathmandu. On reaching the capital, I became acquainted with students of the Sanskrit Patshala situated nearby Rani Pokhari (it’s still in existence). Since I had nowhere to stay, they generously shared their lodgings with me during the initial years. I helped with their cooking and ate with them. Afterwards, I sent a letter home informing my father about my whereabouts. I think he suspected me to be in Kathmandu because, I don’t remember him becoming alarmed after my departure. Later on, from time to time, he sent me money to cover my educational and living costs.”

So began Ghimire’s student’s life in Kathmandu during which he learned to manage his cooking, cleaning, and washing chores. He comments on how things have changed today. “Nowadays, students who live in Kathmandu are provided with every kind of facility to study in. They have access to good books, libraries, educational programs, and the internet. Back in my time, my student life revolved around two things: studying and learning by rote.”

Ghimire’s advantage over former students was his writing experience. Within six months’ time, he ranked second among 150 to 200 students. He became surprised with his performance. After this, he was considered budhimani, highly intelligent. Ghimire then realized that if he failed, he would lose face. He decided to work harder. His teachers impressed with his good grades recommended him to take up literature and mathematics. Towards the end of his studies, Ghimire was able to achieve first rank in his class and passed his Madhyama level of studies.

Although his studies took much of his time, eighteen-year-old Ghimmire made the time to work on his poetry. “For five years, I continuously wrote poems and published them. Slowly, I began to build up a reputation among my teachers and classmates. One day, my friend took me to Nepali Bhasa Prakashini Samiti and introduced me to Bal Krishna Sama and Krishna Shumshere. A vacancy for a writer was available in their committee and they selected me. From 1944, I started working and writing for the samiti, committee. Two years after my arrival, Laxmi Prasad Devkota joined us.

“About this time, Devkota, Gopal Prasad Rimal, Kedar Man Byathit, Siddhicharan Shrestha and I would meet regularly at the samiti. We would share and comment on each other’s work. I think this environment was congenial for our growth as poets and writers.

“Our greatest fear with our writing was the then Rana government. We had to be careful that we did not criticize them openly because they were suspicious about what we wrote. Occasionally, the samiti published a satire or two but these were very obscure. To read we had to smuggle books for ourselves. Still, I remember I was able to read and write a lot during this period.

“I think challenges are part of every situation. Each time you want to do something, you will face difficulties; this is a natural process of life. We came through the problems in our time and today, if you look at the world, you’ll see the “competitiveness” between people – writers, poets or journalists in our context – becoming a big problem. In the old days, creating a name for yourself was easier; fewer people wrote or created.”

Ghimire’s writing career developed gradually and in 1946, he became the editor of Gorkha Patra. In 1947, he participated in a poetry competition on the national flag of Nepal. Besides winning the competition, his reputation as a good poet spread. Sharada and Udaya were other journals in which he began to publish his work. He continues: “Then my first wife Gauri passed away and I was shattered. I began writing poems on her.” His poetry collection Gauri was received very well and the journal became enormously popular with the public.

Ghimire worked for two more years at the Gorkha Sansthan. However, because of his wife’s death, he realized raising two of his children, at that time his two daughters, was becoming a difficult task. For a while, he took over the management of a school in Gausar – a small town in the besi, hilly flatlands of Lamjung. Then in 1952, he participated as a trainer in a teachers’ training program in Tahachal located in the capital. Later on, a college was established in the same area, where Ghimmire taught Nepali literature until 1957. That same year, the poet who had now become nationally established, became the member of the Royal Nepal Academy. “My involvement in the academy’s activities reinforced my commitment to Nepalese Literature. My whole environment was filled with literature and creativity and, I felt, there was nothing more I wished for.” Ghimmire became Vice Chancellor of the Royal Nepal Academy from 1979 to 1988 and Chancellor from 1988 to 1990. During his tenure, he led delegations to China, Russia, and Bangladesh. For his work, he has received the Distinguished Academy Medal, Shree Prasiddha Praval Gorkha Dakshinabahu, Bhanubhakta Award, and Tribhuwan Pragya Puraskar among others. And his literary achievements are Gauri, Malati Mangale, Himal Pari Himal Wari, and Shakuntala to name a few.

As he reflects on his life, he expresses his desire to talk about the poet and poetry. He finds it helps him to identify himself better. “People may be able to differentiate between the physical beauty of a stone and plastic bag. When they are asked to select between a flower or lalupate leaf, it becomes difficult. Both things are part of nature’s creation and are attractive. I think, here, the poet becomes indiscriminate. Here, they are able to distinguish between that subtlety and describe both things with equal poetic intensity.

“Similarly, people differ by their personalities. They respond differently to the same situation. If a person is slapped, she or he may react violently or angrily. We may regard this response in two ways: objectively and subjectively. I think the expression of poets is based on the latter. They look beyond the person’s violence or anger and, reach into the depths of her/his mind.

“For example, a lahure, Nepali soldier working for British or Indian Army, is known to his commander by his role number. When he dies in battle, news reaches his village and people think highly of his valor. His brave deed is regarded objectively. However, what are his mother’s feelings? She has been expecting him to return, maybe bring her a gift, and when she hears about her son’s death, it is not a role number but an integral part of hers that dies. She thinks she should have died instead of her son. How would you define her feelings?

“When a mother’s child cries, she feels pain. So whether it’s the mother who lost her son or the mother whose child is crying is not the issue. The emotional content both mothers convey is important. This is what comes into the poet’s poetry. Pain, anger, joy, or sorrow subjectively described is what makes poetry real.

Talking about today’s literary environment, Ghimmire is speculative. “In my time, even though we feared the Rana government, we did not let go of our commitment. We did tapashya, penitence with our poetry. Nowadays, although competition is strife, a lot of young people have the freedom to follow their interests. But how long they will want to commit themselves to writing or art – a path of mental, emotional, and physical struggle – is something else.

“Also, because of economic and technology progress, youth today have access to modern amenities. Nowadays they have computers at home. Although these changes have helped lives become better; at the same time, they have developed a more relaxed view in people regarding work – the grit and perseverance that makes creation brilliant – which I think is missing.

“The way appreciation is being given to people is disappointing as well. When you watch television, you see this person or that person being acknowledged. Whether their work is worth it or not; it doesn’t seem to signify. The publicity stunt seems to weigh much more. And in time, this kind of process will devalue the meaning of literature and art.

Ghimire rationalizes that poetry should stand up for human values. “Children are brought up learning values that later form their perceptions. Sometimes, they are learnt to believe the wrong things. Look at our caste system. It leads to a misunderstood perception of class structure that is damaging. When I was a child, I used to play with a boy from the Damai, tailoring class (Before, in Nepal, vocations were allocated according to a person’s caste). Once while I was bathing in the river, he came by in a dhunga, small boat and I playfully tried to catch him. He then splashed me with water. Everything about us was natural and spontaneous.

“I feel poets should be able to go beyond the social hierarchical boundary and give humanity vision. By using their poetical skills, they should be able to seek the truth and broaden minds.”

Ghimmire believes as poets or writers we should be able to advocate world peace, justice, humanitarian deeds, etc. We have leaders who govern the country but they try to solve problems through political or administrative means. With poets or writers, wisdom should emanate from their writings.

“Most important is the conscience of the poet – how s/he perceives things; to be able to feel for the sufferings of others is what a poet should be able to emote in words. Like in Devkota’s “Muna Madan”:

Manche thulo dilale huncha, jatale hundaina,

A generous heart makes you profound and not your family/caste.

“These are the words of a compassionate man and they make you feel deeply. “Why did Devkota feel like this? Who can understand? Why do poets feel the way they feel? Who can understand? I think being able to write good poetry is a boon for others. People have the opportunity to look through the eyes of a poet and sense the beauty, ugliness, sadness or happiness in the world. Sometimes in ugliness or hardships, poets see things differently. Here, their hearts rule over their minds.

“In the past, I wrote many poems on the Himalayas. People started to call me the ‘poet’ of the Himalayas. Then someone questioned me whether I preferred the hard life in the hills to the less difficult life in the plains. I feel, however, the richness of the mountains move me; I cannot stop it. I loved my first wife Gauri dearly. She had scars on her face from small pox. Yet it mattered little to me. When I wrote poems on her, I was writing from my heart.”

To the eight-one-year old poet, social consciousness is another strong element in poetry. His awareness regarding a catastrophe like the effects of nuclear warfare indicates his sensitivity towards the future of the world and, the reason behind his poem Ashastha. He especially feels strongly about the status of women in Nepal. For him, they represent a symbol of struggle and hardship. “I find I strengthen my poetry by writing on social issues. This does not mean that poetry that comes from the heart is less significant. I feel poetry that comes from the mind is as important; it only takes a different mode of expression. Besides, this kind of poetry requires enlightenment. It cannot come from experience alone.

“As poets or writers, we cannot expect our work to make tangible changes in society, but down the years, it should be able to give the human spirit that conscience, courage, and foresight to make those changes possible.”

Town Planning in Nepal

The country named Nepal is a land locked country and is surrounded by Himalayas in the Northern parts and also rich in the field of natural beauties and also rich in agriculture as well.. India and china are your neighbor countries and they reach the highest level in development in all the sectors in compare to your country. The infrastructure is densely populated in city are in compare to remote villages.

On this matter the Government of Nepal should implement the strong laws as well as the rules and regulation and to be implemented by the public, if not then there will be a serious problem to the general public who are residing within the town itself. Now onwards if the Government of Nepal and the people must take care and should move forward for the better town planning and to live a luxurious life. As per the Government rules and regulations the building infrastructure should be build up and side by side we need to take care and maintain our natural beauties of greenery so if we can do the country will grow up with in a short period of time.

On the other hand the roads should be build up as the standards set up by the Government and the Road and Transport department and the traffic will follow smoothly and able to reach the destinations with in a short period of time. If not then there will be crowded everywhere and takes longer time what we the public do not accept it.

This helps in looking well planned and developed Nepal and sounds beautiful and looks beautiful.