निबन्ध: ट्रान्जिटमा तन्नेरीका कुरा

स्थान: ट्रान्जिट लाउन्ज, सुवर्णभूमि अन्तराष्ट्रिय विमानस्थल, बैंकक ।

माइकल ओन्टाजीका उपन्यास ‘अनिल्स गोस्ट’ का केही पानाहरूमा आँखाहरू दौडाएपछि म पढाइलाई विश्राम दिदै ट्रान्जिट लाउन्जछेउको एउटा कफी पसलमा पुग्छु । चालीस भाट तिरेर एक बोतल पानी किन्छु र लाउन्जको अर्को छेउतिर हान्निन्छु । लाउन्जमा विभिन्न रूप र रङ्गका, उमेर र आकारका यात्रुहरूको चहल पहल छ । काठमाडौं विमानस्थलमै परिचित जस्ता देखिने दुई तन्नेरी अनुहारहरू लाउन्जको कुर्सीछेउ उभिएका छन् । हँसिला देखिने उनीहरूसँग आँखा जुध्न पुग्छ । “भाइहरू कहाँसम्म नि ?” म उत्सुकतापूर्वक कुराकानी शुरू गर्दछु । “सिड्नी जान लागेको”, उनीहरू प्रतिप्रश्न गर्छन्, “अनि दाइ कहाँसम्म नि ?” आफू कोरियाबाट प्राप्त एउटा निम्तोमा राजधानी सिउलतर्फ लाग्दै गरेको बताएपछि हामी तुरून्तै घुलमिल हुन्छौं । तन्नेरीहरूको साथ पाएपछि ट्रान्जिट र लामो हवाई यात्राका साथी पुस्तक (यसपटक माइकल ओन्टाजीको ‘अनिल्स गोस्ट’) बाट म आफूलाई मुक्त गर्दछु । र, किताबलाई झोला भित्र घुसार्दै उनीहरू संगैको सोफाछेउ बस्छु । ट्रान्जिटकै सोफामा अन्य दुई तन्नेरीहरू पहिल्यै पल्टिरहेका छन् । तिनको छेउकै अर्को सोफामा तिनीहरूकै उमेरकी एउटी किशोरी पछ्यौराले ढाकिएर निदाउने कोसिक गरिरहेकी छे । केही भोकाएका उनीहरूमध्ये एकले वाइ-वाइ चाउचाउको पुरिया फोरेको छ, जसलाई उनीहरू बाडिचुडी पनि खादैछन् । यी सव हाउभाउवाट मैले अनुमान गरे यी तन्नेरीहरू एकैसाथ सिड्नी उडेका ‘जिगरी दोस्त’ वा सहपाठी हुनुपर्छ । भाइहरूसँगै हिँड्नुभएको होला, होइन र ?”, म प्रश्न तेर्साउछु ।

“होइन दाइ, यही तल काउन्टरमा सिड्नीका लागि बोर्डिङ् पास लिदा हाम्रो परिचय भएको हो ।” “एक्साइडेड हुनुहोला नि भाइहरू, अब परदेशमा चाँडै कलेज लाइफ शुरू हुँदै छ। नयाँ ठाउँ नयाँ उत्साह !” “खै कलेज पढ्ने भन्ने कि भाँडा माझ्ने भन्ने दाइ” एउटाले ठट्यौलो पारामा दिएको जवाफ सुनेर सबै गलल्ल हाँस्न थाल्छन् । यो हाँसोले साच्चै नै हाम्रो कुराकानीको ‘आइस ब्रेक’ गर्छ । र, अब म यी तन्नेरीहरूसँग क्याजुअल (अनौपचारिक) कुराकानी गर्दछु । अब परिचयको साटासाट पछि यी तन्नेरीहरू आफ्नो सुविधाअनुसार मसंग दाइ, अंकल र ब्रोको संवोधनमा निसंकोच भलाकुसारी गर्न थाल्छन् । तन्नेरीहरूका कुराकानीमा उमंगको थोरै र संशयको धेरै मात्रा छ । आफूहरूले तीन घण्टा पहिले छाडेर आएको देश कतै आफ्नो अनुपस्थितिमा भड्खालोमा त जाँदैन भन्ने चिन्ता र संशय उनीहरूको प्रत्येक अभिब्यक्तिमा प्रष्ट महसुस गर्न सकिन्छ । प्रस्टै छ उनीहरू अहिले हवाई यात्राको मात्र नभएर जिन्दगीकै ट्रान्जिटमा छन् । अब आउने केही वर्षहरूले उनीहरूलाई आफ्नो गन्तब्यतिर डोहोर्‍याउनेछ । अभिभावकको प्रत्यक्ष मार्गदर्शन र निगरानीबाट मुक्त उनीहरूले यस अघिको यात्रा अब आफ्नै भरमा तय गर्नुपर्नेछ ।

यसरी यात्रा गर्नेहरूमा उनीहरू मात्र एक्ला होइनन् । नेपालबाट दैनिक हजारौं युवाहरू पढाइ वा रोजगारीका निम्ति हवाई मार्ग हुँदै विदेसिन्छन् । यस अर्थमा यी भाग्यमानी तन्नेरीहरू हुन्, जो अभिभावकको खर्चमा सही शिक्षाका निम्ति एक समृद्ध मुलुकतर्फको यात्रामा छन् । उनीहरूका न त नवविवाहिता श्रीमती वा दूधे बालक वा रूग्न बाबुआमालाई छाडेर हिँडेका छन्, न त ऋणको भारी बोकेर नै । त्यसैले उनीहरूमा उल्लास टनाटन छ, भलै भर्खरै देश छाड्नु परेकाले केही नियास्रिएकै होस् । उमंग र कौतुहलको तराजुमा उनीहरू तैरिरहेका छन् । म दी काठमाण्डू पोस्टमा कार्यरत एउट सञ्चारकर्मी रहेको थाहा पाएपछि उनीहरू ममाथि अनेकौं प्रश्नहरू बर्साउँछन् । “अंकल हाम्रो देशमा साँच्चै शान्ति आउला त ?”, “हैन दाइ ज्ञानेन्द्रले फेरि कू गर्लान् त ?”, “के आर्मी चुप लागेर बस्ला र ?, “माओवादी फेरि जंगल पसे त बबाल हुन्छ नि ब्रो !” “के संविधान सभाको चुनाव भएर, संविधान बन्ला त ?”

यी चिन्ताहरूसँगै उनीहरूमा विदेशको पढाइ र बसाईबारे पनि उत्तिकै कौतुहल छ । कतै बाँकी जीवन भाँडा माझ्दामाझ्दै सकिने त होइन भन्ने संसय र त्रासले उनीहरूलाई उत्तिकै गाँजेको पनि छ । उनीहरूको चिन्ता सहजै बुझेकाले पनि उमेर र अनुभवको धरातलमा टेक्दै म आफूले जानेसम्म उनीहरूको कौतुहल मेटाउने प्रयत्न गर्दैछु । करिब दशक अघि आफू पनि उनीहरूकै जस्तो अवस्था र मनोदशामा उच्चशिक्षाका निम्ति लण्डन पुगेको बताए पछि उनीहरू मसंग निकै नजिकिन्छन् । कसरी काम खोज्ने, अनि कामसंगसंगै पढाइलाई सन्तुलनमा राख्नेबारे मबाट ‘टिप्स’ खोजिरेका छन् उनीहरू । विदेशमा रहँदा काम गर्ने वा भाँडा माझ्ने कुराबाट बिचलित हुनुभन्दा पनि मूल उद्देश्य पढाइमा अडिग रहनेतर्फ प्रतिबद्ध रहनेतर्फ गम्भीर रहन म सल्लाह दिन्छु । कामको वर्गीकरणभन्दा पनि परिश्रमको कदर गर्नु महत्वपूर्ण हुने बताउँछु म । र, आफूले लन्डनमा काम गर्दा गर्दै कष्टकासाथ उच्च शिक्षा हासिल गरेको फेहरिस्त पनि उनीहरूलाई सुनाउँछु । मेरो कुराबाट उनीहरूमा आत्मविश्वास भरिएर केही राहत महसुस गरे झै देख्छु म । उमेर र हाउभाउले अल्लारे देखिए तापनि भित्रीरूपले यी तन्नेरीहरू संवेदनशील रहेको अनुभव पनि गर्छु ।

हुन पनि अस्ट्रेलियामा दिन प्रतिदिन उर्लंदो नेपाली विद्यार्थीहरूको चाप र यसका कारण नेपालीहरूलाई सस्ता कामदारका रूपमा दुरूपयोग गरिने प्रबृतिवारे विज्ञ भएकाले पनि यी तन्नेरीहरूको चिन्ता स्वाभाविक छ । विदेशमा नेपालीले नेपालीलाई असहयोग गर्ने, ईर्ष्यालु बन्ने र ढाडस दिनुपर्ने ठाउँमा झनै खुट्टा तान्ने प्रवृत्तिबारे भलिभाती जानकार छन् यिनीहरू । अनि नयाँ रहन-सहन भिज्न सक्नु पर्ने र प्रविधिहरूमा तुरून्तै अभ्यस्त हुनु पर्ने चुनौती पनि छ यिनीहरूलाई । उनीहरूका चिन्ता र उद्देश्य जे-जस्ता भए पनि यिनीहरू आत्मविश्वासी र वाचाल छन् । र, यिनीहरूका हर्कतहरू त झनै रङ्गदार छन् । एकाध नन-फिक्सन डकुमेन्ट्री बनाइसकेको म यी तन्नेरीहरूका गतिविधि क्यामरा मार्फत उधिन्न सके एउटा जीवन्त डकुमेन्ट्री बन्न सक्ने कल्पना गर्दछु । र, आफूसँग ह्याण्डिकेम (भिडियो क्यामेरा) साथै नभएकोमा थकथकी पनि मान्छु । स्वाभाविक छ, देशका अन्य तन्नेरीहरू जस्तै उनीहरू पनि मुलुकको परिस्थिति बिगार्नेहरू प्रति नै क्रुद्ध छन् । राजा ज्ञानेन्द्रको निरंकुशता भर्खरै भोगेका हुनाले पनि उनीहरू राजा बिनाकै मुलुकको कल्पनामा छन् । तर, दोस्रो जनआन्दोलन पछिका नेताहरू पनि ‘जुन जोगी आए पनि कानै चिरेका’ हुने त होइनन् भन्ने चिन्ताले सताइएका छन् यिनीहरू । तीमध्येका भट्टराई थरका एक हसमुख तन्नेरी, जसले परिचयका क्रममा मेरा स्कूले जीवनका एक सहपाठी प्रमोद दवाडीका भान्जा रहेको बताएका थिए, राजा ज्ञानेन्द्रबारेको एउटा रोचक किस्सा सविस्तार गर्छन् ।

‘एकपटक ज्ञानेन्द्र सिरहा पुगेछन् । राजा आउने खबर सुनेका एक स्थानीय बृध्द राजासंग गुनासो राख्न कोसौदेखि टन्टलापुर घाममा दौडेर आइपुगेछन् । आफ्नै आँखाका अगाडि साक्षात राजालाई पाउँदा ती वृद्ध निकै नर्भस भएछन् । र, बोल्ने लाख कोसिस गर्दा पनि तिनको बक राम्ररी फुट्न सकेनछ । ती स्वाँ-स्वाँ गर्दै बर्बराउन थालेछन् – सरकार, सरकार, सरकार !’ ‘राजाले त्यो सुनेर टाउको हल्लाउँदै भनेछन्- ए बुझेँ बुझेँ, तिमीलाई दम भएको रहेछ ।’ यस प्रसंगवाट फेरि एक पटक हाँसोको पर्राले ट्रान्जिट लाउन्ज गुन्जाएमान बन्छ । हाँसो सकिदै गर्दा बोर्डिङ् पास लिने क्रममा दौंतरी बनेका अर्का तन्नेरी कम्प्लिमेन्ट गर्छन्, “आम्मै ! यो ब्रो त हरिप जोकर पो त रहेछ ।” हुन पनि यी चार तन्नेरीहरू चार दिशाका छन् । भिन्न चरित्र र रूचिहरूका । राजनीति, मिडिया, पढाइ र जीवनशैली हाम्रा कुराकानीका विषय बन्छन् । समूहका एक जो निकै अग्ला तर लिखुरे ज्यानका छन्, जसलाई उनीहरू ‘लम्बु ब्रो’ भनेर सम्वोधन गर्छन्, टोक्योतिर उड्न लागेकी एक युवतीको साथ छन् । झट्ट हाउभाउ हेर्दा ती युवती लम्बुकी गर्लफ्रेन्ड जस्ती देखिन्छिन् । कुरा त्यस्तो नभएर उनी पनि ट्रान्जिटमै परिचित हुन पुगेकी रहिछिन् । लम्बु केही बेरमा तिनै युवतीका साथ आउँछन् । युवतीको अनुहार केही मलिन छ । उनी यी तन्नेरीहरूसँग विदावारी हुन आएकी रहिछिन् । बिदाईपछि लम्बु युवतीलाई पुर्‍याउन उनको प्रस्थान कक्षतिर लाग्छन् । “हो यसैगरी भाइहरू एकअर्कालाई पालैपालो डिपार्चरतिर पुर्‍याउने काम गर्नुस्”, म सुझावको शैलीमा व्यङ्ग्य गर्छु, “यसो गर्दा ट्रान्जिटको समय सजिलै कट्नेछ ।” सबै फेरि एकपल्ट गलल्ल हाँस्छन् । यसरी हाँसो र ठट्टा मै मेरो ट्रान्जिटको पाँच घण्टामध्ये चार घन्टा सकिएता पनि ती तन्नेरीहरूका सर्लक्कै चौध घण्टा समय बाँकी नै छ ।

“यस्तो नि हुन्छ ट्रान्जिट अंकल ?’ एउटा दिक्दारी प्रकट गर्छ, “यो रड्डी भयो नि !” अनि थप्छ, “चौध घण्टा के गरेर बिताउने ? यसो तास-सास भएको भए खेल्न पनि हुन्थ्यो ।”
“यस्तो थाहा पाएको भए मै बोकेर आउथे नि”, अर्को सहमति जनाउँछ । “ल ब्रो पालै पालो सुत्नुपर्ला । यसो गर्दा समान पनि हराउन सक्दैन । अनि सुत्दा-सुत्दै प्लेन पनि छुट्दैन”, तेस्रो जुक्ती फुराउँछ । उनीहरू सुत्दा सुत्दै प्लेन नै छुटेको हरिवंश आचार्य र मदनकृष्ण श्रेष्ठ अभिनीत टेलिचलचित्र ‘१५ गते’ सन्दर्भसँग अहिलेको ट्रान्जिटको बसाइलाई जोड्छन् ।
“भाइ हो, मजाले सुते हुन्छ”, म सल्लाहको भावमा सान्तना दिन्छु, “चौध घण्टाको ट्रान्जिटमा कति लामो नै पो सुतिएला र ? आज सुतेर पर्सी उठ्ने त पक्कै होइन होला ?” एक पल्ट फेरि ट्रान्जिट हाँसोले गुन्जिन्छ । यसैबीच जापान जाने युबतीलाई बिदाइ गर्न हिडेका लम्बु आइपुग्छन् । “के रहेछ ब्रो त्यो केटीको नाम?” एउटा सोध्छ । “खै ब्रो, नाम त सोधिएन’, लम्बु जवाफ फर्काउछ। केही समय मात्रको युवतीको साथका कारण साथीहरूमाझ लम्बु जिज्ञासा र ईर्ष्याको केन्द्र बनिसकेको छ। “इमेल त पक्कै लिएका हौला नि ?” अर्को चाहिँले केरकार गर्छ ।

“का लिनु ब्रो”, लम्बु सफाइको शैलीमा जवाफ फर्काउछन् । हामी बीचको कुराकानी फेरि अघि बढ्छ । पत्रकारले बनाउने पहिचान र उनीहरूलाई मिल्ने सहुलियत बारे उनीहरू निकै जिज्ञासु बन्छन् । “अंकललाई त मोज छ नि”, एउटा थप्छ, “पत्रकारहरूलाई सित्तैमा घुम्ने मौका निकै आउँदो हो ।” “हेर्नुस्, भाइहरू हो उमेरको आफ्नै फाउदा र बेफाइदा हुन्छन्”, म उनीहरूको चित्त बुझाउन खोज्छु, “अहिले घुम्न त पाइन्छ तर तपाईंहरू जस्तै ठिटीको पछि लाग्न मिल्दैन नि !” मेरो कुराले तन्नेरीहरूको अनुहारमा खुशीको भाव झल्किन्छ । “बूढाहरू झन् खल्ली हुन्छन्”, लम्बु जवाफ फर्काउनमा कुनै कन्जुस्याइ गर्दैनन् । अब मेरो बाँकी एक घण्टा पनि लगभग सकिनै लागेको छ । तन्नेरीहरूको सानिध्यका कारण मैले ट्रान्जिटका पाँच घण्टा पाँच मिनेट झैं बिताएको छु । अब छुटिने तरखर गर्दै तन्नेरीहरूलाई आगामी विद्यार्थी जीवनको शुभकामना दिँदै म आफ्नो प्रस्थान कक्षतिर लाग्छु ।

(पत्रकार खरलेको हालै सार्वजनिक मैले नदेखेका हिप्पी निबन्ध संग्रहबाट । यो संग्रह सांगि्रला बुक्सले बजारमा ल्याएको हो ।)

Source: http://www.onlinekhabar.com/2013/08/110524

Seven Types Of Guys Women Can’t Resist

Always wondered why some guys always manage to get the best of girls?

Well, the secret is not good looks or a well-defined six pack, but the fact that women simply get attracted to certain personality traits and flock to men who possess them.

Below are seven of these “ideal types” of guys that women are drawn to, and an explanation as to why these guys are so appealing, reports Fox News .
The list could help you understand what women are looking for, and most importantly, to make sure that you fit the bill.

The Romantic Guy
He believes in classic romance. He is constantly bringing her flowers and chocolate and lighting candles during dinner. He calls her often to let her know he is thinking about her and looks into her eyes and tells her how he feels.

Why he is so irresistible: A woman loves to feel appreciated, and the romantic guy makes this happen. He uses romantic gestures to show her he is thinking about her. As an added bonus, she feels free to reciprocate and act on her own romantic tendencies.

The Confident Guy
He is totally secure and sure of himself. He is assertive in public and gives off an aura of power and control. In a relationship, he does not get jealous of other men; he does not feel threatened by his girlfriend’s male friends or co-workers.

Why he is so irresistible: Women are attracted to confident men. Consider this: If you think you are great, she will probably be influenced to think the same. The confident man does not seek approval from women, and this makes them want him even more.

The Artistic Guy
The artistic guy is spontaneous and lives for the moment. Often, he will use his creativity to woo her, such as with a song he has written about her or a painting he has made for her.
Why he is so irresistible: Every woman wants to feel unique and special. There is no better way to make her feel this way than to use her as your muse or your source of inspiration. She is intrigued by the artistic guy’s creative mind and especially by the way he incorporates her into his art.

The Foreign Guy
He comes from a faraway exotic country and he might have a cute accent or a unique way of seeing the world. His social customs and everyday behaviour can be a little quirky, but he always manages to come off as uniquely charming.

Why he is so irresistible: Women often choose this kind of guy if they are curious about the world, but most of the appeal comes down to a fascination with dating someone from another culture.

The Free Spirit Guy (aka the Bad Boy)
The free spirit guy goes where the wind takes him – and the wind usually takes him on some kind of wacky adventure. He might ride a motorcycle, or he might skip work to take her on a last-minute road trip, but this guy does not worry too much about the consequences- he just sees where his own devices take him.

Why he is so irresistible: Every woman wants a bit of a rebel. She loves
his carefree attitude and hopes that it will rub off on her too. The bad boy spirit adds an element of youthfulness to the relationship and she loves to try taming him, although she knows shell never actually succeed.

The Intelligent/Witty Guy
He instigates conversations that are intellectually stimulating and listens to what she has to say in response. He makes her laugh with his clever sense of humour and has an uncanny ability to make politics interesting. He can shoot the breeze with her for hours and it will never get boring.

Why he is so irresistible: An intellectual connection is a big part of what sustains a relationship and if you can show her that you have got that, she will be hooked pretty quickly.

The Considerate Guy
He holds open her car door and pulls out her chair. He foots the bill for dinner and makes sure to offer her dessert. He always asks her out with reasonable notice and picks her up at her door. He is generally sensitive to how she is feeling and when she is ready to go home.

Why he is so irresistible: Once a woman has gone through her share of the bad guy, the rude guy and the not-calling-her-back guy, she will likely re-evaluate her priorities. It takes a bit of maturity on her part to realize this, but eventually most girls come around and realize that they want a guy who will treat them well in the long run.

But, think twice before copying any of the above character types, for women can know when you are faking it.

What Women Want In Man

Tall, dark, handsome, rich with a good sense of humour – this indeed forms the perfect package when it comes to choosing a potential male partner.

However, women at times, expect a little too in terms of what they want in a man. Be it physical appearance, behavioural traits or personality attributes, women can’t stop asking for more!

Several studies in the past have shed light on the qualities that women look forward to in their Prince Charming and most girls tend to stick to these parameters when it comes to making their choice. Be it a man’s intelligence, his voice tone, romantic nature, pricey possessions, dancing skills etc, women tend to relate to these qualities and pick the best out of the lot.

Relationship and marriage counsellor Dr. Gitanjali Sharma explains, “The evolution theory states that women seem to seek signs of resource acquisition in men to maximize prospects for their kids. They prefer older men who tend to be more advanced in their careers, or of higher status in society and are therefore likely to be a better bet in terms of providing resources.”

Here’s the complete guide for men to know what exactly it takes to impress a woman…

Be intelligent : Intelligence is a sure shot way to woo a woman, not only while talking to her, but also during lovemaking moments. A study confirmed that when it comes to picking a bed-mate, both for one-night stands and long-term relationships, women prefer intelligent men to dumb jocks.

Expert say : Marriage counsellor Dr. Kamal Khurana opines, “No matter how financially liberal a man is, intelligence still remains a quintessential quality. When it comes to taking decisions in emotional and physical matters, women expect men to be in the driving seat. Having an intelligent mate also brings women a certain reassurance that their needs and demands will be well satisfied with better communication and understanding.”

Deep baritone : Masculinity comes alive in your voice, so if you have a softer pitch, which sounds feminine, isn’t really a great thing to rely on. Women usually look out for men who can be assertive, tough and equally passionate using their voice. A research suggested that women prefer men with deep voices because it signals strength, dominance and good genes.

Expert say : Dr. Gitanjali Sharma says, “Women are approximately seven times more attracted towards a man who has a deeper voice and a superior position and a dominating work style. High-pitch voices hint towards a pro-social behaviour, so women find such men more reliable.”

Be romantic not a rich : A simple recipe to win a woman’s heart is to give her loads of love and keep up the romance. It’s not always the case that a girl chases a guy for materialistic reasons, rather women seek romantic mates. A recent survey revealed that most women believe that their perfect man needs to be romantic and not rich.

Expert say : Dr. Khurana states, “The concept of nuclear family has off late become quite popular, so the love, care and affection that were missing earlier, a woman wants that feeling of fulfillment from her life partner. Romance enhances love and emotions, whereas money or wealth is only for materialistic comfort. Men may shower their female partners with money, but the luxuries of no use unless your mate is not there with you to enjoy the good times.”

Drive a cool car : Women are keen to hang out with a self-made man with a secured future. Whether that stature comes from your bank balance or an expensive car – make the most of your dream wheels to flatter women. A study confirmed that driving a flashy car really does make a person more attractive to women.

Expert say : Dr. Gitanjali asserts, “Materialistic needs are priorities, depending on the woman’s lifestyle Women are naturally drawn to men who can provide for them and ensure the survival of their children. Thus they are attracted to strong and vigorous men who exhibit behaviour that indicate high status.”

Look sexy with more hair : A clean shaven body or a half bald look can be a turn-off for your female partner. A research found that ladies looking for love on dating websites are more likely to contact men with a full head than those who are thinning on top.

Expert say : Dr. Khurana adds, “In the past, men were never into makeovers and beauty treatments and they were simply crude. And women have grown up seeing their dads and brothers in a typical macho man look, so this orientation of preferring men with more hair has been there with them since childhood.”

Dance like Travolta : It’s not always that women get attracted to men who can do sensuous salsa or romantic ball dance, so let your flamboyance do the talking. According to a research, John Travolta’s flamboyant dance style in the cult film ‘Saturday Night Fever’ is of the kind that is the most attractive to women.

Expert say : “Highly-coordinated, complex movements are attractive to women as they see dancing to be a co-ordination between a healthy body and a controlled mind. So a man who is able to dance in a flamboyant style is judged as a person who has control over his mind and likes to work on his mind. Your dancing style may reflect what is going on inside a person’s head. If they are self-conscious, it will be reflected in the way they dance,” explains Gitanjali.

Smoking of Tobacco

Tobacco smoking first started sometime in the 1400s. It was invented by natives in the Bahamas Islands. Instead of just pulling out a paper rolled cigarette, they had pipes. One end of the pipe was filled with burning tobacco leaves, while the other end of the pipe was where they inhaled the smoke. Many people all over the world today have been taken into this habit. Worldwide, there are approximately one billion smokers. This habit is extremely addicting because of a substance called nicotine found within each cigarette. Once a person is sucked into this dirty habit, it is hard for them to quit.

The smoke from a cigarette, consists of 100 million more harmful substances than the most polluted air. It also contains chemicals in it that many people don’t know of. Some of these chemicals include acetone (nail polish remover), ammonia (a household cleaner), cadmium (battery acid),and formaldehyde (preserves dead bodies). All of these chemicals are found in just one cigarette. These chemicals aggravate asthma and allergies by directly bothering the respiratory membranes. Because of this, it can trigger the production of excess mucus and cause sensitive airways in the lungs to tighten.

Tobacco smoking is the largest cause of death that can be prevented. Everyday, about a few thousand people die from this fatal death stick. This means that every eight seconds. This kills more people than the worst epidemic diseases. Tobacco even affects your physical appearance. It can make your skin wrinkled and older looking, cause your teeth to turn yellow, and give your breath and clothes a dingy odor. Researchers say that smokers who smoke 10-20 cigarettes a day live on an average of five years less than non-smokers. To look on the bright side, if smokers quit, it is possible that the damage done to the lungs can be repaired.

Cigarette smoke is so dangerous and so powerful that it can cause 17 different kinds of cancer. The cancer that is the most obvious and seen most often is lung cancer. Other places where cancer can sprout are in the throat, gullet, mouth, esophagus, pancreas, stomach, kidney and the bladder. Not only does tobacco smoke cause cancer, it can cause chronicle cough and bronchitis. However, tobacco smoke doesn’t only cause many harmful and fatal diseases, but it also influences things like asthma, angina, hay fever, allergic rhinitis and shiver. Inhaling the smoke does a lot of harm to both hearts and veins. The nicotine inside of cigarettes, which is the ingredient that makes them addicting, damages digestive organs because it demolishes the balance of acids in the stomach. For people whom already have asthma, active and passive smoking may worsen asthma attacks. For people with allergic rhinitis or hay fever, tobacco smoke may trigger or aggravate nasal symptoms.

The most dangerous time to smoke is when a women around you is pregnant or when you are pregnant yourself. The reason for this is that it the smoke can cause the baby to have birth defects. When the baby is born, it could weigh 150-250 grams less. The baby could even be born less developed. On a recent survey, it showed that women who smoke have more spontaneous abortions than the women who do not smoke do. For children, some evidence suggests that parental smoking may increase the risk of developing asthma. Also, children that are living with smokers have reduced lung function and increased school absences that are due to colds, bronchitis, and other conditions of the respiratory system.

In summary, tobacco smoking is an important health hazard. It is the largest cause of death that can be prevented. In 1995, over half a million deaths in the United States of America, and about two million deaths in all of the developed countries were contributed to smoking. People who smoke are not only affecting themselves, but the ones they love around them.

Overpopulation And The Environment

I believe that the number of humans that live on this planet is the main problem. We should develop new processes for stabilizing the current population. Overpopulation is becoming one of the most prominent problems facing human civilization. This complicated, pervasive issue is a problem of the utmost importance for the people of all the races, religions and nationalities. With our endless need of new information we should be able to develop unique process to end these problems.

Our planet now provides for approximately 5.8 billion people with projections of around 10 billion people by the end of the year 2050. Two billion of these are extremely poor, the poorest of which live in absolute poverty and misery. The affects of overpopulation on human society are numerous. Suffering from  a lack of resources, people are often driven to war when they became to populated for their available resources.

Increasing amounts of food, energy, water and shelter are required to fulfill the needs of today’s society. The amount of land required for food production will grow increasingly larger while the amount of available land will grow increasingly smaller. The resources required to maintain this rapid development is putting a strain on our current supplies of energy.

Much of our energy is derived from the burning of fossil fuels, releasing millions of tons of toxins into the atmosphere cause harm to the environment as well as those who live around these locations. Currently they are groups with the sole purpose of saving the environment. This mission to save the world is one that eventually all of us should get on board with. Because we as a society should be concerned about our future as well as the future of our children. After all we are only renting this planet from our children and we should look out for their best interests.  

Prevent Global Warming

The planet where human nature is having their homes for shelter, food and education is called by name Earth. These days the Earth is getting hotter and hotter on a daily basis as before thousand years ago and also difficult to blame for the activity of human nature.
There are many such things which we can give more effort to control and prevent from global warming. One method of controlling the global warming is recycling and helps in cleaning the surrounding of the whole universe. If people who are residing on Earth give up smoking as well as using the private vehicles that is cars the most and starts using the solar energy and rechargeable energy instead of fuels, can help in reducing the global warming.
On this matter Government is also keen interested in using the other source of energy which do not affect the human nature as well as the human beings that is in renewable energy which helps in reducing the green house gas and global warming. The oceans is also one of the source for the energy which provides sufficient amount of energy for our requirements and the smaller ones gives more in compare to old ones or current design. we can use the energy that is natural or man made ones.
On the other hand Government is also interested on wind powers energy and other renewable energy to combat the global warming and the green house gas. Turbine can produce 80 times on it’s operating hours to build, operate and dismantle. As per the public point of view wind power energy is good and the environment of the wind farms can be barred for development.

Cultural Environment

The invention of the television and its advancement through technology in our world has affected the cultural environment significantly. It has affected the way we act, perceive things, and even changed our lives as a whole. The cultural environment in today’s society is totally different from the time period before the invention of the television. First, the television has affected the pre-existing cultural institutions. Before the television was invented most of the children all over the world would play outside with their friends after school. Children would be playing ball in the streets, buying candy at the convenience store, and so on. Ever since the television was invented, more and more children are watching television rather than playing outside after school. In today’s society, it’s even worse since children are usually glued to the television all day. This eliminates their chance for some exercise and to meet new people. The invention of the television also has changed the meaning of family night. Back before the television, families used to come together one night a week to play board games and to socialize. Ever since the television was invented, less and less families come together to play games. If they do come together, it is usually in front of the television. This changes the meaning of family night because now families don’t socialize as much because they watch television.
This technology has also affected the way people see themselves and their place in the universe. Television has become such an integral part of society that people are confusing fantasy with reality. Violence seems to be in almost every television show in today’s society. This excessive violence makes society accustom to it and therefore people don’t believe violence is as bad as it is when it happens. “Although few anti-television activists would agree that excessive television viewing can exculpate a murderer, a huge body of evidence — including 3,000 studies before 1971 alone — suggests a strong connection between television watching and aggression” (Stossel 3). This is concrete proof that the television has changed people’s attitudes and the way they see themselves in society. Television has also changed people’s view of the world. Now with the television, people can get news from around the world everyday at almost any time. Before the television, people could only get the world news everyday from the newspaper. News from the television is also more current because the television makes it possible to get breaking news to the people whereas the newspaper can only report the news that happens before it is printed. People in today’s society can potentially have more knowledge about the world events due to the invention of the television. Television also gives people the opportunity to view other parts of the world. Without the television, people would not be able to see other parts of the world without travelling there. If they would read something about another part of the world, they could only imagine it in their minds. With the invention of the television, people could now see parts of the world that was not possible before without travelling around the world.
The invention of the television has changed society and the cultural environment dramatically. Ideas are now expressed differently, the world is seen in a new way, and pre-existing cultural institutions have been changed due to the integration of the television into society. There are both good and bad changes that have occurred due to the invention of the television, which is common of all technologies. There is no doubt that the television has changed the way people act and perceive things in society.

Essay – Telecommunications Industry

The telecommunications field is a vast field that contains terms and acronyms which can be confusing to those who are not familiar with the terminology. Therefore, the following paragraphs will compare and explain some common terms used when referring to the telecommunications field and will entail some old technology with some new. To be included within the discussion is comparisons of telephone dialing sounds, Wide Area Telecommunications Services (WATS) versus leased lines, Private Branch Exchanges (PBX) or Centrex, and the International Organization for Standardization-Open Systems Interconnection (ISO-OSI) model.
What are the differences between Rotary and Dual Tone Multi-frequency (DTMF)? Rotary dialed phones were round and “spun” to make a phone call. The disk had the numbers 0-9 and one had to place a finger in the hole next to the number they wanted to select and turn the dial completely around then let go. When the disk spun back to its original position it would create a series of frequency pulses that corresponded to the number dialed and was known as “pulse dialing.” The phone company switching network would recognize the number of “clicks or pulses’ sent and would switch to the appropriate line.
On the other hand DTMF uses a “tone dialing’ method to place a call. A push button phone uses the “tone” method of dialing. Each time a number button is pushed on the phone, the circuitry in the phone makes a two toned sound for each number and sends that sound to the phone company switching network for validation and to be patched through to the correct line.
What are Wide Area Telecommunications Service (WATS) and leased lines and how are they different? Wide Area Telecommunications Service is a special “dedicated” line for individuals or company’s that want to have to luxury of having a designated number that would allow for incoming calls to be received at no charge to the customer. Furthermore the WATS system usually comes with a discounted price for its use due to the expected large volume of calls. Leased lines are different from WATS in the sense that they are borrowed lines and are used only by those who have leased the lines. What this means is that the line is open for use by the leaser anytime the leaser needs the line to communicate with. Additionally, the phone company does not use the line that is leased to conduct other phone services on and leaves the line “open” for the leasing company only to use for communication (Mitchell, 2008). On the other hand, a WATS line is used repeatedly by the phone company while still being used by the client who pays for the WATS.
How do Private Branch Exchange (PBX) and Centrex differ? A PBX is a company centered switching network for in-house calling. The company would typically have a few dozen phones within the network and each with a need to be able to complete in-house and outside phone calls. With a PBX an employee could call another office within the company by simply dialing a few digit phone extensions rather than a full phone number. Additionally, when these types of calls are made it does not interfere with outside phone lines or take up any of the space of outside phone lines. All the phone lines are maintained within the company itself with just a few lines to connect to the outside phone network for outside calls.
A Centrex (Central Office Exchange) is different from a PBX simply by the location of the switching operations. A Centrex switching is off site from the company and is run and operated by the local telephone company. With that said, the PBX equipment would have to be bought, installed, and maintained by the company where with a Centrex all that would be done by the providing telephone company.
The International Organization for Standardization-Open Systems Interconnection (ISO-OSI) model is comprised of 7 layers and is used to standardize the networking industry. Each layer of the model communicates with only the layers that are above, below, or the identical layer on another device. The purpose of the layers is to exchange data with another layer or device. Basically, each layer of the model builds on another layer by adding information until all the layers have been connected with and added their specific information. Once that has been completed the receiving device will take the information and in a reverse mode, take the layers specific information as it passes it through the layers. With that said, the seven layers are: Application (Implements the communication components with the software), Presentation (Ensures transferred information is readable), Session (Manages the communications segments), Transport (Accepts data from higher layers and segments it for travel), Network (determines the IP address), Data Link (defines the network and protocol information), and Physical (determines the physical characteristics of the data).
In conclusion, each of the terms discussed are important when working in the telecommunications field. Without the knowledge of what equipment is used to comprise a network and how such equipment came into play then one would not be successful in building a network. Hopefully, the explanations and definitions of WATS, PBX, Centrex, Rotary, DTMF, leased lines, and the ISO-OSI model have helped to give a better understanding of the telecommunications field.