निबन्ध: ट्रान्जिटमा तन्नेरीका कुरा

स्थान: ट्रान्जिट लाउन्ज, सुवर्णभूमि अन्तराष्ट्रिय विमानस्थल, बैंकक ।

माइकल ओन्टाजीका उपन्यास ‘अनिल्स गोस्ट’ का केही पानाहरूमा आँखाहरू दौडाएपछि म पढाइलाई विश्राम दिदै ट्रान्जिट लाउन्जछेउको एउटा कफी पसलमा पुग्छु । चालीस भाट तिरेर एक बोतल पानी किन्छु र लाउन्जको अर्को छेउतिर हान्निन्छु । लाउन्जमा विभिन्न रूप र रङ्गका, उमेर र आकारका यात्रुहरूको चहल पहल छ । काठमाडौं विमानस्थलमै परिचित जस्ता देखिने दुई तन्नेरी अनुहारहरू लाउन्जको कुर्सीछेउ उभिएका छन् । हँसिला देखिने उनीहरूसँग आँखा जुध्न पुग्छ । “भाइहरू कहाँसम्म नि ?” म उत्सुकतापूर्वक कुराकानी शुरू गर्दछु । “सिड्नी जान लागेको”, उनीहरू प्रतिप्रश्न गर्छन्, “अनि दाइ कहाँसम्म नि ?” आफू कोरियाबाट प्राप्त एउटा निम्तोमा राजधानी सिउलतर्फ लाग्दै गरेको बताएपछि हामी तुरून्तै घुलमिल हुन्छौं । तन्नेरीहरूको साथ पाएपछि ट्रान्जिट र लामो हवाई यात्राका साथी पुस्तक (यसपटक माइकल ओन्टाजीको ‘अनिल्स गोस्ट’) बाट म आफूलाई मुक्त गर्दछु । र, किताबलाई झोला भित्र घुसार्दै उनीहरू संगैको सोफाछेउ बस्छु । ट्रान्जिटकै सोफामा अन्य दुई तन्नेरीहरू पहिल्यै पल्टिरहेका छन् । तिनको छेउकै अर्को सोफामा तिनीहरूकै उमेरकी एउटी किशोरी पछ्यौराले ढाकिएर निदाउने कोसिक गरिरहेकी छे । केही भोकाएका उनीहरूमध्ये एकले वाइ-वाइ चाउचाउको पुरिया फोरेको छ, जसलाई उनीहरू बाडिचुडी पनि खादैछन् । यी सव हाउभाउवाट मैले अनुमान गरे यी तन्नेरीहरू एकैसाथ सिड्नी उडेका ‘जिगरी दोस्त’ वा सहपाठी हुनुपर्छ । भाइहरूसँगै हिँड्नुभएको होला, होइन र ?”, म प्रश्न तेर्साउछु ।

“होइन दाइ, यही तल काउन्टरमा सिड्नीका लागि बोर्डिङ् पास लिदा हाम्रो परिचय भएको हो ।” “एक्साइडेड हुनुहोला नि भाइहरू, अब परदेशमा चाँडै कलेज लाइफ शुरू हुँदै छ। नयाँ ठाउँ नयाँ उत्साह !” “खै कलेज पढ्ने भन्ने कि भाँडा माझ्ने भन्ने दाइ” एउटाले ठट्यौलो पारामा दिएको जवाफ सुनेर सबै गलल्ल हाँस्न थाल्छन् । यो हाँसोले साच्चै नै हाम्रो कुराकानीको ‘आइस ब्रेक’ गर्छ । र, अब म यी तन्नेरीहरूसँग क्याजुअल (अनौपचारिक) कुराकानी गर्दछु । अब परिचयको साटासाट पछि यी तन्नेरीहरू आफ्नो सुविधाअनुसार मसंग दाइ, अंकल र ब्रोको संवोधनमा निसंकोच भलाकुसारी गर्न थाल्छन् । तन्नेरीहरूका कुराकानीमा उमंगको थोरै र संशयको धेरै मात्रा छ । आफूहरूले तीन घण्टा पहिले छाडेर आएको देश कतै आफ्नो अनुपस्थितिमा भड्खालोमा त जाँदैन भन्ने चिन्ता र संशय उनीहरूको प्रत्येक अभिब्यक्तिमा प्रष्ट महसुस गर्न सकिन्छ । प्रस्टै छ उनीहरू अहिले हवाई यात्राको मात्र नभएर जिन्दगीकै ट्रान्जिटमा छन् । अब आउने केही वर्षहरूले उनीहरूलाई आफ्नो गन्तब्यतिर डोहोर्‍याउनेछ । अभिभावकको प्रत्यक्ष मार्गदर्शन र निगरानीबाट मुक्त उनीहरूले यस अघिको यात्रा अब आफ्नै भरमा तय गर्नुपर्नेछ ।

यसरी यात्रा गर्नेहरूमा उनीहरू मात्र एक्ला होइनन् । नेपालबाट दैनिक हजारौं युवाहरू पढाइ वा रोजगारीका निम्ति हवाई मार्ग हुँदै विदेसिन्छन् । यस अर्थमा यी भाग्यमानी तन्नेरीहरू हुन्, जो अभिभावकको खर्चमा सही शिक्षाका निम्ति एक समृद्ध मुलुकतर्फको यात्रामा छन् । उनीहरूका न त नवविवाहिता श्रीमती वा दूधे बालक वा रूग्न बाबुआमालाई छाडेर हिँडेका छन्, न त ऋणको भारी बोकेर नै । त्यसैले उनीहरूमा उल्लास टनाटन छ, भलै भर्खरै देश छाड्नु परेकाले केही नियास्रिएकै होस् । उमंग र कौतुहलको तराजुमा उनीहरू तैरिरहेका छन् । म दी काठमाण्डू पोस्टमा कार्यरत एउट सञ्चारकर्मी रहेको थाहा पाएपछि उनीहरू ममाथि अनेकौं प्रश्नहरू बर्साउँछन् । “अंकल हाम्रो देशमा साँच्चै शान्ति आउला त ?”, “हैन दाइ ज्ञानेन्द्रले फेरि कू गर्लान् त ?”, “के आर्मी चुप लागेर बस्ला र ?, “माओवादी फेरि जंगल पसे त बबाल हुन्छ नि ब्रो !” “के संविधान सभाको चुनाव भएर, संविधान बन्ला त ?”

यी चिन्ताहरूसँगै उनीहरूमा विदेशको पढाइ र बसाईबारे पनि उत्तिकै कौतुहल छ । कतै बाँकी जीवन भाँडा माझ्दामाझ्दै सकिने त होइन भन्ने संसय र त्रासले उनीहरूलाई उत्तिकै गाँजेको पनि छ । उनीहरूको चिन्ता सहजै बुझेकाले पनि उमेर र अनुभवको धरातलमा टेक्दै म आफूले जानेसम्म उनीहरूको कौतुहल मेटाउने प्रयत्न गर्दैछु । करिब दशक अघि आफू पनि उनीहरूकै जस्तो अवस्था र मनोदशामा उच्चशिक्षाका निम्ति लण्डन पुगेको बताए पछि उनीहरू मसंग निकै नजिकिन्छन् । कसरी काम खोज्ने, अनि कामसंगसंगै पढाइलाई सन्तुलनमा राख्नेबारे मबाट ‘टिप्स’ खोजिरेका छन् उनीहरू । विदेशमा रहँदा काम गर्ने वा भाँडा माझ्ने कुराबाट बिचलित हुनुभन्दा पनि मूल उद्देश्य पढाइमा अडिग रहनेतर्फ प्रतिबद्ध रहनेतर्फ गम्भीर रहन म सल्लाह दिन्छु । कामको वर्गीकरणभन्दा पनि परिश्रमको कदर गर्नु महत्वपूर्ण हुने बताउँछु म । र, आफूले लन्डनमा काम गर्दा गर्दै कष्टकासाथ उच्च शिक्षा हासिल गरेको फेहरिस्त पनि उनीहरूलाई सुनाउँछु । मेरो कुराबाट उनीहरूमा आत्मविश्वास भरिएर केही राहत महसुस गरे झै देख्छु म । उमेर र हाउभाउले अल्लारे देखिए तापनि भित्रीरूपले यी तन्नेरीहरू संवेदनशील रहेको अनुभव पनि गर्छु ।

हुन पनि अस्ट्रेलियामा दिन प्रतिदिन उर्लंदो नेपाली विद्यार्थीहरूको चाप र यसका कारण नेपालीहरूलाई सस्ता कामदारका रूपमा दुरूपयोग गरिने प्रबृतिवारे विज्ञ भएकाले पनि यी तन्नेरीहरूको चिन्ता स्वाभाविक छ । विदेशमा नेपालीले नेपालीलाई असहयोग गर्ने, ईर्ष्यालु बन्ने र ढाडस दिनुपर्ने ठाउँमा झनै खुट्टा तान्ने प्रवृत्तिबारे भलिभाती जानकार छन् यिनीहरू । अनि नयाँ रहन-सहन भिज्न सक्नु पर्ने र प्रविधिहरूमा तुरून्तै अभ्यस्त हुनु पर्ने चुनौती पनि छ यिनीहरूलाई । उनीहरूका चिन्ता र उद्देश्य जे-जस्ता भए पनि यिनीहरू आत्मविश्वासी र वाचाल छन् । र, यिनीहरूका हर्कतहरू त झनै रङ्गदार छन् । एकाध नन-फिक्सन डकुमेन्ट्री बनाइसकेको म यी तन्नेरीहरूका गतिविधि क्यामरा मार्फत उधिन्न सके एउटा जीवन्त डकुमेन्ट्री बन्न सक्ने कल्पना गर्दछु । र, आफूसँग ह्याण्डिकेम (भिडियो क्यामेरा) साथै नभएकोमा थकथकी पनि मान्छु । स्वाभाविक छ, देशका अन्य तन्नेरीहरू जस्तै उनीहरू पनि मुलुकको परिस्थिति बिगार्नेहरू प्रति नै क्रुद्ध छन् । राजा ज्ञानेन्द्रको निरंकुशता भर्खरै भोगेका हुनाले पनि उनीहरू राजा बिनाकै मुलुकको कल्पनामा छन् । तर, दोस्रो जनआन्दोलन पछिका नेताहरू पनि ‘जुन जोगी आए पनि कानै चिरेका’ हुने त होइनन् भन्ने चिन्ताले सताइएका छन् यिनीहरू । तीमध्येका भट्टराई थरका एक हसमुख तन्नेरी, जसले परिचयका क्रममा मेरा स्कूले जीवनका एक सहपाठी प्रमोद दवाडीका भान्जा रहेको बताएका थिए, राजा ज्ञानेन्द्रबारेको एउटा रोचक किस्सा सविस्तार गर्छन् ।

‘एकपटक ज्ञानेन्द्र सिरहा पुगेछन् । राजा आउने खबर सुनेका एक स्थानीय बृध्द राजासंग गुनासो राख्न कोसौदेखि टन्टलापुर घाममा दौडेर आइपुगेछन् । आफ्नै आँखाका अगाडि साक्षात राजालाई पाउँदा ती वृद्ध निकै नर्भस भएछन् । र, बोल्ने लाख कोसिस गर्दा पनि तिनको बक राम्ररी फुट्न सकेनछ । ती स्वाँ-स्वाँ गर्दै बर्बराउन थालेछन् – सरकार, सरकार, सरकार !’ ‘राजाले त्यो सुनेर टाउको हल्लाउँदै भनेछन्- ए बुझेँ बुझेँ, तिमीलाई दम भएको रहेछ ।’ यस प्रसंगवाट फेरि एक पटक हाँसोको पर्राले ट्रान्जिट लाउन्ज गुन्जाएमान बन्छ । हाँसो सकिदै गर्दा बोर्डिङ् पास लिने क्रममा दौंतरी बनेका अर्का तन्नेरी कम्प्लिमेन्ट गर्छन्, “आम्मै ! यो ब्रो त हरिप जोकर पो त रहेछ ।” हुन पनि यी चार तन्नेरीहरू चार दिशाका छन् । भिन्न चरित्र र रूचिहरूका । राजनीति, मिडिया, पढाइ र जीवनशैली हाम्रा कुराकानीका विषय बन्छन् । समूहका एक जो निकै अग्ला तर लिखुरे ज्यानका छन्, जसलाई उनीहरू ‘लम्बु ब्रो’ भनेर सम्वोधन गर्छन्, टोक्योतिर उड्न लागेकी एक युवतीको साथ छन् । झट्ट हाउभाउ हेर्दा ती युवती लम्बुकी गर्लफ्रेन्ड जस्ती देखिन्छिन् । कुरा त्यस्तो नभएर उनी पनि ट्रान्जिटमै परिचित हुन पुगेकी रहिछिन् । लम्बु केही बेरमा तिनै युवतीका साथ आउँछन् । युवतीको अनुहार केही मलिन छ । उनी यी तन्नेरीहरूसँग विदावारी हुन आएकी रहिछिन् । बिदाईपछि लम्बु युवतीलाई पुर्‍याउन उनको प्रस्थान कक्षतिर लाग्छन् । “हो यसैगरी भाइहरू एकअर्कालाई पालैपालो डिपार्चरतिर पुर्‍याउने काम गर्नुस्”, म सुझावको शैलीमा व्यङ्ग्य गर्छु, “यसो गर्दा ट्रान्जिटको समय सजिलै कट्नेछ ।” सबै फेरि एकपल्ट गलल्ल हाँस्छन् । यसरी हाँसो र ठट्टा मै मेरो ट्रान्जिटको पाँच घण्टामध्ये चार घन्टा सकिएता पनि ती तन्नेरीहरूका सर्लक्कै चौध घण्टा समय बाँकी नै छ ।

“यस्तो नि हुन्छ ट्रान्जिट अंकल ?’ एउटा दिक्दारी प्रकट गर्छ, “यो रड्डी भयो नि !” अनि थप्छ, “चौध घण्टा के गरेर बिताउने ? यसो तास-सास भएको भए खेल्न पनि हुन्थ्यो ।”
“यस्तो थाहा पाएको भए मै बोकेर आउथे नि”, अर्को सहमति जनाउँछ । “ल ब्रो पालै पालो सुत्नुपर्ला । यसो गर्दा समान पनि हराउन सक्दैन । अनि सुत्दा-सुत्दै प्लेन पनि छुट्दैन”, तेस्रो जुक्ती फुराउँछ । उनीहरू सुत्दा सुत्दै प्लेन नै छुटेको हरिवंश आचार्य र मदनकृष्ण श्रेष्ठ अभिनीत टेलिचलचित्र ‘१५ गते’ सन्दर्भसँग अहिलेको ट्रान्जिटको बसाइलाई जोड्छन् ।
“भाइ हो, मजाले सुते हुन्छ”, म सल्लाहको भावमा सान्तना दिन्छु, “चौध घण्टाको ट्रान्जिटमा कति लामो नै पो सुतिएला र ? आज सुतेर पर्सी उठ्ने त पक्कै होइन होला ?” एक पल्ट फेरि ट्रान्जिट हाँसोले गुन्जिन्छ । यसैबीच जापान जाने युबतीलाई बिदाइ गर्न हिडेका लम्बु आइपुग्छन् । “के रहेछ ब्रो त्यो केटीको नाम?” एउटा सोध्छ । “खै ब्रो, नाम त सोधिएन’, लम्बु जवाफ फर्काउछ। केही समय मात्रको युवतीको साथका कारण साथीहरूमाझ लम्बु जिज्ञासा र ईर्ष्याको केन्द्र बनिसकेको छ। “इमेल त पक्कै लिएका हौला नि ?” अर्को चाहिँले केरकार गर्छ ।

“का लिनु ब्रो”, लम्बु सफाइको शैलीमा जवाफ फर्काउछन् । हामी बीचको कुराकानी फेरि अघि बढ्छ । पत्रकारले बनाउने पहिचान र उनीहरूलाई मिल्ने सहुलियत बारे उनीहरू निकै जिज्ञासु बन्छन् । “अंकललाई त मोज छ नि”, एउटा थप्छ, “पत्रकारहरूलाई सित्तैमा घुम्ने मौका निकै आउँदो हो ।” “हेर्नुस्, भाइहरू हो उमेरको आफ्नै फाउदा र बेफाइदा हुन्छन्”, म उनीहरूको चित्त बुझाउन खोज्छु, “अहिले घुम्न त पाइन्छ तर तपाईंहरू जस्तै ठिटीको पछि लाग्न मिल्दैन नि !” मेरो कुराले तन्नेरीहरूको अनुहारमा खुशीको भाव झल्किन्छ । “बूढाहरू झन् खल्ली हुन्छन्”, लम्बु जवाफ फर्काउनमा कुनै कन्जुस्याइ गर्दैनन् । अब मेरो बाँकी एक घण्टा पनि लगभग सकिनै लागेको छ । तन्नेरीहरूको सानिध्यका कारण मैले ट्रान्जिटका पाँच घण्टा पाँच मिनेट झैं बिताएको छु । अब छुटिने तरखर गर्दै तन्नेरीहरूलाई आगामी विद्यार्थी जीवनको शुभकामना दिँदै म आफ्नो प्रस्थान कक्षतिर लाग्छु ।

(पत्रकार खरलेको हालै सार्वजनिक मैले नदेखेका हिप्पी निबन्ध संग्रहबाट । यो संग्रह सांगि्रला बुक्सले बजारमा ल्याएको हो ।)

Source: http://www.onlinekhabar.com/2013/08/110524

Siddhartha

Siddhartha is extremely proud of his ability to think, fast, and wait. These qualities also allow him to get a job with Kamaswami as a merchant. These are basically Siddhartha’s life achievements. Being able to do these
things shows he is intelligent and more than able to do most tasks. This is probably why he flaunts it, and is proud of these abilities so much. In this essay I will discuss each of these abilities individually, and show how they apply to his life, what they do to teach him, or show him, and also show how they help him or hinder him in various situations.

The ability to think obviously is something to be proud of. When a man can think on any topic, give feedback, and reflect on it, they are considered very valuable in any situation or job. When Kamaswami first meets
Siddhartha, he is instantly impressed with his ability to read and write. We see how this ability to think can gain a man instant respect. All Siddhartha’s life he has been reading, writing, meditating, and studying. It
is quite evident tat if you or I worked that hard, we would feel the same achievement he has, and try to apply our abilities to anything we do. Aside from thinking though, Kamaswami is also very impressed with waiting as we see when he says, “Writing is good, thinking is better. Cleverness is good, patience is better.”

As much as Siddhartha thinks, his ability to wait is something that really defines his character even better. This is also incorporates with fasting, as well as thinking, but by itself waiting is extremely important.
I have found, in all my years, myself to be quite impatient. This will probably harm me later in my life. The ability to wait also spurs the ability to think, and fast. Throughout all his studies, Siddhartha had to
wait out the array of different teachings he went through to know truly in his heart, that they didn’t apply to him. To wait on something shows wisdom, and maturity. These are traits that no good businessman can ignore, as Kamaswami realizes. That is a major reason Siddhartha was hired.

Lastly, fasting is something that once again requires patience, and deep thought. As Siddhartha says “It is of great value, sir. If a man has nothing to eat, fasting is the most intelligent thing he can do. It, for instance, had not learned to fast, he would have had to seek some type of work today, either with you, or elsewhere, began hunger would have driven him. But as it is, Siddhartha can wait calmly. He is not impatient, he is not in need, he can ward off hunger for a long time, and them laugh at it. Therefore, but fasting it useless sir.” Siddhartha believes in fasting, because it builds character, and lets him flaunt his ability to do certain things even more so.

In conclusion, Siddhartha’s three like achievements demonstrate how really strong his character truly is. All these mean the world to him, because his beliefs don’t really incorporate a family. Although these traits
didn’t score him any points with Kamala, she refused him and off he went. Siddhartha has a very strong independence soul. These traits, thinking, fasting, and waiting all define him as a very intelligent, hard working, and patience young man. The reason is obvious to why he is so prove of his achievements. They are impressive, and something he spent his lifetime working on.

नेपाली निबन्ध – हुक्का

सात कोस परै भाग्थेँ म धूवाँदेखि।धूवाँसँग एउटा अत्यास र विध्वंसको नातो छ जस्तो लागिरहन्छ मलाई। यो समाप्ति र निमिट्यान्नको इतिहासले भरएिको ठान्छु म। धूवाँ एउटा रित्तिएर अनि सिद्धिएर आएको भाव मान्छु म। खरानी र धूवाँ आपसका नातागोता। हो, यी एकदमै नातेदार। बहुल अर्थमा यिनको परस्पर सम्बन्ध छ। अन्तिम तर्क र सिद्धान्तले यी हाम्रो वरपर उच्चारति भएका हुन्छन् हरक्षण। मैले धूवाँको संसारमा आफूलाई घचेट्ने प्रयास नगरेको पनि होइन। गाउँमा गोठालो जाँदा दाँवलहरू सिकाउँथे, धूवाँ तान्न। कोसिस पनि गरेकै हुँ तर असफल पूरै। हरेकपटक पराजित। अनिच्छा र हारको दुई पाइलामा दगुररिहेँ म। तराईमा जुटको सन्ठी सल्काएर तानेकै हो, धूवाँको सर्को। तर, सर्किएर झन्नै मरेको म त ! अहँ, निस्सासिएर आँखाभरी आँसु आएर निल्नै सकिनँ मैले धूवाँको परकिार। किलकिलेमुनि ठेल्नै सकिनँ रस, स्वाद र चुस्की। मुखभरी वरपर घुमाइरहँदा केको स्वाद, केको मस्ती र केको आनन्दी ! अनि पो म धूवाँ तान्नमा सधैँको गोल्टिङ। धूवाँ-मोह एक अर्थमा भएन। हो, हुँदै भएन। विश्वविद्यालयको विद्यार्थी छँदा बिहानकै कक्षा हुन्थ्यो तैपनि उति सारो धूवाँतिर मन गएन। अम्मली भइएन भनौँ न ! धूवाँप्रति आकर्षण भइरहेन मलाई। जाडोका दिनमा साथीहरूका ओठमा धूवाँले तुजुग देखाइरहन्थ्यो अटुट। म परेँ, कमजोर साक्षी। अझ विज्ञापनै भए पनि ‘यो त हानिकारक’। यस्तै चेतनाले चिमोट्न छाडेन मलाई। ठाउँठाउँका मुख, फोक्सो र छाती डढेका तस्बिर हेरेपछि मलाई चिसो पसेको लाग्थ्यो आफैमा ।

धूवाँको पिरोले मेरो शरीर पीडित मात्र भयो, उल्कापातको खुसीले रमाएन। हो, कहिल्यै उज्यालिएन। दुखाइ र व्यथाको भारीमा उज्यालिएको खुसीले केको पाइला बढाउँछ- लम्केर? घिसि्रन्छ मात्र पो त। घडी बिँडी, शिव बिँडीसँगै मेरा ठूलोबुबा चुर खानुहुन्थ्यो, सेतो ताउ पातामा। लाली र सुर्तीलाई मज्जाले मोरेर घाममा सुकाइन्थ्यो। अनि, त्यो मगमगिँदो चुरलाई ठूलीआमा-ठूलोबुबा दुवैले मकैको खोसेल्टा र सालका पातमा नि बेरेर सल्काउँथे। धेरै समय चुर, पात, खोसेल्टा, लाली र सुर्तीकै चर्चामा दिन बित्थ्यो। पिँढीमा देखिन्थ्यो ज्येष्ठ नागरकिको सभा, धूवाँमय। ‘सस्तो भनेको त क्यै नाइँ। जाबो धूवाँमा उड्ने कुरो नि यस्तो महँगो !’ सिमानाको बजार, नक्सलबारीमा किनमेल गरेर आएपछि ठूलोबुबा लालीको भाँडो थन्काउँदै भन्ने बोली म हरेक १५ दिनमा सुन्थेँ। ख्वाइँ-ख्वाइँ खोकिरहेकी ठूलीआमा भन्नुहन्थ्यो, ‘क्यैमा बढाउन नपाएपछि हाम्लाई नै त मार्न खोज्ने हुन् नि ठूलाठालूले !’ अनि, दुवै बूढाबूढी त्यही सेतो कागजी पातोमा चुर बेर्न थाल्थे। म त सानो केटो पढ्न भनेर छेउमा बसे पनि तिनका गलफती र गतिविधि हेररिहेकै हुन्थेँ। नाकमा एउटा अनौठो स्वादले बास गररिहेको हुन्थ्यो। सुकिलो र सुन्दर सेतो धूवाँ तान्ने आँट नगरे पनि चुरको बास्नाले तानिरहेको थियो। सुग्घर र स्वादिलो धूवाँको सर्को पिउने साहस नगरे पनि चुरको सुवासले अँगालिरहेको थियो मलाई। मगमग बास्ना। हो, एक खालको परिचित स्वाद। विज्ञान र प्रविधिमा धूवाँ अटुट जोडिने पक्ष हो। धेरै निर्माण र रचना धूवाँकै आधारबाट रचिएका लाग्छन्। लाग्छ, धूवाँले जन्मजात स्थापित अर्थ बोलेको छैन। नाशवान् र नष्ट कथाको गौरवमा धूवाँको मानक मूल्य जोडिएको छ। धूवाँले सिर्जनाको इतिहासमा डोर्‍याएको छ आफूलाई। यो सिद्धान्तका तर्कमा धूवाँले नजित्ला? यो सहरमा बस्न थालेको धेरै भयो। नगर र महानगरमा पाइला टेके पनि धूवाँबाट टाढा हुन सकिनँ म। धूवाँको मूल्यमा आज हरेक समाज र सभ्यता लागिपरेको छ एकोहोरो। धूवाँको विन्दु-विन्दु र थोपा-थोपालाई अँगाल्न जुर्मुराएको छ, आजको संसार।

धूवाँमा परेका तीनवटा दृश्य मेरा आँखामा जतिखेरै भतभती भएर आउँछन्। गाई दुहुन कसैले आँटै नगर्ने। अलिक परका नातेदार थिए काफ्ले। तिनको गाई थियो एकहाते। बर्खाताका एकपटक म पुगेँ पाहुना हुन। घर रुँगुवा हामी पर्‍यौँ। ‘तिमेरु अलिक अल्छी गर्छौ। धुनी लाएर मात्र गाई दुहुनु है !’ हुन्छ वा हुँदैन भनेनौँ हामीले। झिँगा र लामखुट्टेको डसाइमा आजित भएको गाईले आज नौलो अनुहार देख्नेबित्तिकै यसरी लात्ती बर्सायो, बाल्टी एकातिर त भयो नै, काफ्लेका कान्छा छोराको नि टाउको र आँखा नै थिलथिलो पार्‍यो। अहिलेसम्म गाईको लात्तीको निसानी छ, बाङ्गो आँखा र नाक छेउमा गहिरो खत। धूवाँको जोहो नहुँदाको एउटा स्तब्ध दृश्य। बुबा तीर्थ गर्न जानुभएको थियो। पूजा कोठामा मौरीका घार थिए। यस्तै तीन-चार घारले वसन्त ऋतु आएपिच्छे नयाँ घर बनाउन निहुँ खोजिरहेको छनक पाएकै थिएँ मैले। ‘आज मह काढ्नु-पर्छ। कोइला ठीक पार्नुपर्ला !’
मह काढ्न रहर गर्ने तिमिल्सिना मामालाई भनेँ। ‘धूवाँले हैरान पार्छ। म सजिलैसँग मह काढ्छु। तिमी किन अत्तालिएको?’ उनी चम्किए। राती भएपछि बिस्तारै मह काढ्ने काम भयो। कता के मिलेन, हरेक घार बिच्किएर तिमिल्सिनामाथि धुइरएि मौरीका बथान। उनी मह काढ्न सक्ने भएनन्। आँखा सुन्निएर, हात, पाखुरा र गर्धन सुन्नाएर निकै दिन थला परे। खुबै ज्वरो आयो उनलाई। बुबाले भर्भराउँदा कोइलामा धूप हाल्दै सुवासित धूवाँमुनिबाट मह काढ्दा मौरीसँग दुस्मनी हुँदैनथ्यो कहिल्यै। जतन, ख्याल र स्नेहले मह काढेको उल्लास छरिन्थ्यो । उफ, तिमिल्सिनाको भुक्क फुलेको अनुहार। धूवाँसँग नजिकिन नजान्दाको चोट। तेस्रो कुरा सम्झिरहेको छु म। धूवाँसँग अँगालिएको चिम्सा र चम्किला आँखाको संसार। मभित्र आइरहने एउटा चिसो र दर्फराउँदो कथा। घातक कथा, पराजित खुसी। हो, रुदिलो अनुहारमा खसेको मसिनो बादलको धर्सो। फुसको घर छ, परालले छाएको। सेउला र बाँसका झिक्राझिक्रीले बारएिको बार-टाटी छ। त्यसकै दक्षिणपट्टि परालको टौवा छ। त्यही टौवामुनि धिमालनी बूढी छन्, रक्सी पाररिहेकी। आगो अटुट छ, धूवाँले घेरएिको। बूढीले पेटानी कसेकी छन्। धूवाँमा छोपिएर रक्सी पाररिहेकी ती सेतै फुलेकी बूढी। तिनी त चाख्दाचाख्दै मातिसकेकी हुँदी हुन्। ठूल्ठूला तामाका भाँडा वरवर सार्दै दिन बित्छ तिनको। एकदमै बडेबडे भाँडामा पानी फेर्दाफेर्दै तिनको रात ओर्लिसकेको हुन्छ आँगनमा। जतिखेरै रसिला आँखामा उनी वरपर हेर्छिन्। दाउरा ठोसिरहेका हातले आँखा छामिरहेका हुन्छन्, कोस पुछिरहेका हुन्छन् र परेली मिलाइरहेका हुन्छन्। रक्सी बनिरहेको हुन्छ। उनको रक्सीले अरू धेरै भरे, भोलि वा पर्सि रुन सक्छन्, रुवाउन सक्छन्। यतिबेला उनी धूवाँमा डुबेर रक्सी बनाइरहेकी छन्। कुनै छुट्टी वा बिदा तिनको आँगनमा आएन। कुनै हिउँद वा बर्खा उनको पिँढीमा आएन। धूवाँले बिदा पाएन। धूवाँले छुटकारा पाएन। धिमालनीका वरपर थियो, धूवाँमय घडीपला। धूवाँले नाश गर्ने तथ्यसँगै एकदिन तिनी भेट्टइिन्, आँखा गुमाएर बाटामा माग्न बसेकी।

मैले धूवाँका यी पत्रे चोटमा आफूलाई धेरैपटक छामिरहेको छु। बिर्सिन नसकिने धूवाँखिलमा उभिन्छु म घरीघरी। धूवाँ तान्ने तरकिा आजको समाजमा अर्को सान भएर आएको छ। चुरोट वा गाँजालाई लिएर निकै बहस भइरहेकै छन्। उन्मत्त वा मनोद्वेगलाई सिर्जनातिर डोर्‍याउन धूवाँ छेउमा पुग्छु, यसो भन्नेहरूका ओठ र औँलामा चेपिएको चुरोट देखिरहेको छु धेरैपटक। त्यो उन्मत्त वा उदासीले किन धूवाँ वा फुसफुसे रूपको सहारा खोजेको होला? उदासी त चोट वा छातीमा गाँठो परेको कठोरतालाई तरल कुराले कसरी भगाउला त? धूवाँका हरेक लहरमा खिन्नता छ, व्यथा छ र रोग छ। जान्नेहरूका मन्थनमा यी तथ्य सरक्क पसेका छन्। बुझ्नेहरूले यी गुदी विचारका थोप्लाहरूले आफ्ना धमिलिएका आँखा धोएका छन्। अनि बाटो सोझ्याएका छन्, धुलाम्मे गोरेटालाई चिन्न र थाहा पाउन सकेका छन्। धूवाँ एउटा मौनता। धूवाँ एउटा विकराल। धूवाँ एउटा समाप्ति। धूवाँ एउटा कष्टसाध्य। धूवाँ एउटा समाधि। हरेक यी बुँदामा धूवाँले अधिकार खोज्दो रहेछ। न्याय र अधिकारका पानामा धूवाँले आफूलाई उभ्याउन खोज्छ। म भर्खरै त अरू भरङ्ग भएँ। मेरो घरमा भाङ तान्ने, सुल्फा अँट्ट्याउने, बिँडी बेर्ने वा तमाखु भर्ने रडाकाले ठाउँ पाएन। आमाले लुकेरै खानु भो। बुबाले हाम्रा अघिल्तिर झ्वासझ्वासी सलाई कोरेको थाहा छैन। बरू वरपरको समाजले घरीघरी त्यता तान्ने प्रयास भने गररिह्यो। विदेशबाट विद्यार्थीको ठूलो लर्को फिरेछ देश। तिनले आफन्त, नातेदार वा मित्रमण्डलीसँग भेटिरहेको सुनेथेँ। ‘हैन, सरसँग त बस्नैपर्छ नि !’ एकदिन थापाथलीनिर मेरो अघिपछि थियो त्यो हुल। अनि, थियो जोरजुलुमको आवाज पनि। ‘हुन्छ, बसौँ !’ विनीत भएँ म। मैले तिनलाई घोकाएको, सिकाएको वा पढाएकै थिएँ त्यत्ति नै। सधैँ विनीत बन्नु। विनयी वा विनम्रीले संसारका हरेकबाट प्रेम प्राप्त गर्छ। सिकेको ज्ञानमा हुन्छ ऊर्जा र जीवन।
‘चिया, खाजा क्यै होइन। सरसँगै हुक्का खाने !’ ‘हुन्छ, जाने, जाने !’ म सुनिरहेँ, खाने र जाने कुरा। एक सातापछि तिनले पाटन कृष्णमन्दिर उत्तरतिरको गल्लीमा छिराए। ढोकैमा लेखिएको थियो, हुक्का। सानो छाप्रोका दायाँबायाँ हुक्काको सुन्दर तस्बिर। म भित्र छिरेँ, हुक्का तान्ने लस्करको हुलमा। बिस्तारै अनेक बास्नाको लहर त्यहाँ छुट्यो। स्याउ, सुन्तला, अंगुर, आरु, मेवा वा अम्बाका बास्नाले घेरयिो, त्यो ठाउँ। जाई, पारजिात, तुलसी, करवीर, कदम र धतुरोको गन्धले भरभिराउ भयो- त्यो ठाउँ। एकपछि अर्को कुइरीमण्डल। अनुहार राताम्मे पारेर लट्ठ। ससाना केटाकेटीको मुखमा हुक्काको लस्कर। कुनै समय धूवाँको सर्कोले नीलो-कालो भएँथेँ म। कुनै बेला धूवाँको अटेसमटेसले आँखाभरी आँसुले पुरएिको थिएँ म। आज त्यो सब फिक्का। हुक्का तानिरहेका किशोरकिशोरीहरूका ओठमा पीडा, ग्लानि वा खुइय्य छैन। हुक्का खाइरहेका युवकयुवतीका अनुहारमा दिग्दारी, चोट वा पश्चात्ताप छैन। सुगन्धित बास्ना छ हुक्काको। मैले वरपर सबै हेरेँ, टेबलपिच्छे हुक्का तानेर निमग्न छ समाज। समाजका सबै खालको अनुहारले आनन्दित मौसम बोकेको छ। आवाजले भरएिर के भो ! पानीले चलायमान भएर के भो ! शब्द र स्वरको मिलापले के भो र ! अनुभूति र भाषाको साइनोले के भो र ! धूवाँ त हो नि हुक्का ! यसलाई जितिने तर्क हो मित्था। यसलाई हराउने विचार हो पुड्को। यसलाई पाखा लाउने धारणा हो लुलो । हुक्कालाई सक्तैनौँ हामी हराउन !

Partial Birth Abortion

In the continuing debates on the legality and morality of abortion, “partial birth” abortions have become a hot topic. What exactly is a partial birth abortion? Nebraska state legislation defines it as “an abortion procedure in which the person performing the abortion partially delivers a living unborn child before killing the unborn child and completing delivery” (1). While this definition may be fine for legal purposes, it still does not address the actual procedures; we still do not know what an actual partial birth abortion procedure entails.

The most common procedure is called Intact Dilation and Evacuation, or D&E. D&E involves dismembering the fetus inside the uterine cavity and then pulling it out through the already dilated cervix (1) . Another less common, but more controversial method is the dilation and extraction method, or D&X. This procedure requires a woman to take medication several days in advance to dilate the cervix. Once the cervix has dilated, she returns to complete the procedure. When she returns, the physician turns the fetus around in the uterus so that it is positioned feet first, and then delivers the fetus until only the head remains inside the mother’s body. At this point, the physician punctures the base if the skull and suctions out the contents of the fetus’ head, causing the skull to collapse. The dead fetus is then removed from the woman’s body (2). In each case the head (or more) is left inside the woman’s body because in order for a birth to have occurred under common law the head of the fetus must leave the mother’s body. Under the current interpretation of the United States Constitution, a person must be born in order to be protected by the government, so by leaving the head in the mother’s body the procedure is considered to be legally viable (1).

Proponents of a ban on partial birth abortions cite what they see as the extreme cruelty of the procedures as violating the constitutional rights of the fetus. They believe that birth should be defined as occurring as soon as any part of the fetus’ torso above the navel is visible, or when any of the fetus’ body has left the mother (1). Many argue that since the fetus in undoubtedly alive during the procedure, the issue of whether or not an actual birth has occurred should be of little consequence (3). Since partial birth abortions are performed late-term, many of the fetuses could in fact be self-sustaining outside of the mother’s body.

Those who oppose the ban argue that it jeopardizes the health and safety of the mother. Since all partial birth abortion bans presented in Congress and state legislatures have been vague as to which procedures they prohibit, the overall threat to women’s health is too great and would place an “undue burden” on the women in question (1). Late term abortion procedures that are not partial birth involve dismembering the fetus inside the uterus without cervical dilation, which can leave behind fetal tissue, or require the head to come out of the mother’s body uncollapsed, which can result in a live birth (1). In either of these procedures, there is a higher risk of puncturing the uterus or damaging the cervix than there is with partial birth methods (2). Banning partial birth abortions would leave these procedures as the only option for late term abortion. Additionally, none of the partial birth bans have included clauses allowing such procedures if they are necessary to the mother’s health and well-being. This means that if a woman had to have a late term abortion to save her own life, she would be forced to choose a riskier procedure. Since few women choose to terminate after seven to eight months of pregnancy for non-health related reasoning, it follows that most women seeking a late term abortion would be put in a difficult position. This is what the anti-ban groups mean when they refer to an undue burden on the mother’s health (4).

When I began my investigation, I was sure of my position on abortion rights, and convinced that little could change my mind, regardless of what the procedures actually involved. However, when reading the case made by the pro-ban side of the argument, I could not help but agree with certain things they said. Does birth really define life? I’m not so sure that I agree that it does. Does this mean that I completely disapprove of partial birth abortion? No – I still feel that a woman should be able to choose the safest method available, and in the case of late term abortions, partial birth procedures have obvious benefits. The information I gathered has, however, caused me to question my unconditional support of the procedures – should elective abortions really be allowed if the procedures are as, well, unpleasant as partial birth methods are? What I once thought were clear cut lines between the legal, the biological and the sentimental aspects of the issue have blurred.

The Promise of Human Cloning

Cloning opens many doors of opportunities in the agricultural aspect of the United States of America. It has already been a major factor in saving the lives of many humans. I feel the society as a whole can not and should not degrade this scientifical finding. I feel that human cloning should not be done and that this subject raises too many ethical questions. I would like to focus on an agricultural aspect if I may. People raised hell when animal parts were put into humans to save lives and today it is an accepted part of medicinal science. I feel that cloning in an agricultural and medicinal aspect will become the same as transplanted animal parts. It will go through much debate, but ten years from now it will be accepted scientifically, socially, and morally. In an article in Newsweek called A Cloned Chop, Anyone? They take a somewhat neutral, but also somewhat negative viewpoint of cloning in an agricultural and medicinal sense. They admit some good aspects of this genetic engineering, but they still seem pessimistic of the future of cloning in animals excluding humans.
The first thing the article states is the Wall Street opportunities for the biotech field. Instead of phone calls from eager investors only phone calls from reporters were coming in asking about this market. I feel that now would be a great time to invest in biotechnical companies specializing in agricultural and medicinal cloning. This article says nothing about the great potentials of long term investment. Long term investment especially in the medicinal field is incredibly profitable. Just as in other controversial investing opportunities I feel that investors will find they could have made a lot of money if they invested in this area. Ten to fifteen years from now this agricultural cloning will be a commonly routine thing and price wars will begin for the products produced by them which means many great investment opportunities will be available. But one must remember that Wall Street is extremely short term investing so this is a good explanation for not many investors being interested in this because it is still many years before tangible and profitable products are made from cloning.
The article goes on to say the Scottish scientists have a lot of good ideas, but they seem to be only a sci-fi adventure. Once again I disagree. Scottish scientists are trying to help the human race, not be lucrative mad scientists looking for another way to manipulate the human race. The following are some things that have already been done with genetic engineering and they are helpful to us, the human race. They plan on genetically engineering cows that produce altered milk formulas for premature infants. This is great I do not know how anyone can go against this because if their infant’s life were on the line they would do everything in their power to save their child’s life. Also they are genetically engineering animal organs to be more similar to those of humans. So just like we have been trying to do we can take organs from animals and successfully transplant them into humans. Again this will save many lives of people with terminal diseases that can be saved by organ transplant.
Cloning is referred in the genetics area as transgenics. Some companies have been altering genes of animals with genes of humans to produce proteins needed to fight cancer and other diseases. Cloning may further enhance this procedure witch will help catalyst this treatment easily past the human testing stage into curing these horrible diseases. One company has already bred cows that may produce milk containing a protein essential for infants who can not nurse. Again I see no down side to this product and cloning will help speed this research along so we can save lives.
The article next talks about some positives. It tells how sheep with proteins necessary for saving human lives can be breed more efficiently with cloning. Right now only one or two out of every ten sheep produce the proteins needed. However with cloning these “good” sheep can be cloned. Then they breed with other clones to make a whole generation of sheep with the desired protein. One company in the biotech field PPL is hoping to genetically engineer animals that will produce a tissue glue for use in surgery and a drug for cystic fibrosis.
Finally the article states at the end that does anyone want to eat a cloned chop. Well the major restaurant chains did not seem interested. But first off only one sheep has been produced. I am sure they are not going to butcher the only clone to see how it tastes. I do not feel people should disclaim cloned meat. If an extremely good beef generation was produced they could be cloned. This would give excellent beef all year round and year after year. Of course cloning should not over take natural breeding, because through natural breeding we find more and better varieties of livestock. I am sure that the meat would be very tasty and palatable. The same goes true for grains, corn, and other plants. A superior seed may be available for worldwide use through cloning.
Overall there are many possible positive benefits of cloning in an agricultural and medicinal aspects. As of now no one has the authority or right to belittle cloning. Besides there is not even scientific evidence to support any refutations to go against any cases about cloning that may appear in a court of law. We must be patient as a world community to see what develops of this subject. But it is years away from hitting the market; all we can do is hope and wait that someday cloning will better the human race and ourselves

The Road to Coorain

Have you ever wondered how much your up bringing and early family life affected the person you are? Jill Ker Conway, in her autobiography The Road to Coorain, both literally and figuratively maps out her early life, placing specific emphasis on geographic location and the importance it made to her as an adult. Her life as a young girl in the western outback shaped her view toward the world, just as our backgrounds have shaped who we are. After Conway’s trip to England she states that, It took a visit to England for me to understand how the Australian landscape actually formed the ground of my own consciousness, shaped what I saw, and influenced the way a scene was organized in my mental imagery. By reflection on my past, I can support, just as Conway has, that a person’s up bringing directly affects their perspective on life. During the earlier part of her life Conway lived in the hostile western region of Australia that produced men and women that never complained about hard work. Reversly, I have been raised in a green, forgivable climate, where my family urged me to express my feelings and I have become sensitive to not only my own feelings, but also to those others.

After Conway’s father died, she and her mother moved to Sydney. During Conway’s schooling she attended the local public school for only one day. Had Conway stayed there she said she would have discovered the true nature of the Australian class system. As it was, it took, “another fifteen years to see the world from my own Australian perspective, rather than from the British definition taught to my kind of colonial.” Unlike Conway, I have always attended the local public school; forcing me to mix with people with incomes slightly above, below, and equal to my family. Additionally, this summer I interacted with a new dimension of my city’s residents while working at the Cabbage Patch Settlement House — an organization that works to break the chain of poverty through inner city children. This eye opening experience provided me with a broad base from which to perceive other members of society. While viewing the supposedly majestic scenes that had inspired the great writers of the Renaissance and the Romantic Period, Conway became aware this land was far from what she had perceived. It then became clear that the land she had been raised on out shined its unfamiliar counterpart. All my life I have been raised in a sunny temperate climate. I learned from the start that England and American where two entirely different entities, and therefore, I was able to enjoy the differences during my trip to England last summer.

After reading Conway’s autobiography, and seeing how she compares her inner workings to the landscape she was born in, I gained a better appreciation of exactly how much my up bringing has shaped who I am today and who I will become in the future.

The Wife of Bath

In the pilgrimage to Canterbury there were twenty-nine pilgrim of who were to set froth to Canterbury to receive blessing. Out of those twenty-nine pilgrims, there were three women two of the women were the prioress and the Nun. The two women were escorted and protected by the priest. The third woman was the wife of baths. She was not escorted nor protected by man. One of the wife of bath’s reasons in going on this pilgrimage, beside getting the holy blessing, was the probability off finding a sixth husband.
In the wife of Bath’s prologue she argues with the pilgrims about the marriage and she use’s her experience in the matter of marriage over the motion of the tradition authority. Because she been married five times, she is more experienced about the marriage more than any other pilgrim.
In her prologue the wife of Bath’s talked about her five marriages, and how she gained sovereignty over all of her husband. She claimed by giving woman the power, marriage will be more better. On the other hand all of her husbands of whom she had power form eventually died. Although the wife of bath’s always speak of her mastery and her skill in gaining sovereignty over her husband. Her fifth husband, who she really loved, did not give in easily. He used to beat her and he also reads to her from the book that he wrote about how the woman are wicked and how they are easy to get.
In the wife of Bath’s tale about the knight and the old lady, she also concentrated that the wives should have complete sovereignty over their husbands. Just like her she gained sovereignty and mastery over all five of her husband.
The wife of Bath’s husband did not live in perfect bliss, for each one of them ended up dying. Her first three husbanded were rich and old they died while trying to satisfy her sexual lust. But she didn’t reveled any thing about how her fourth and fifth husband death. But by talking under consideration that all of her previous husband had died after trying the sovereignty of the marriage, it is fairly logical to believe that she had something to do with it. Even her fifth husband whom she loved dearly and lived happily together ended up dying.
The wife of Bath’s never confessed on how any of her husbands died. Although it is widely thought that the first three died during sexual intercourse, or in an attempt to satisfy her lust, but there is no evidence in her prologue that explains the death of her last tow husband. In conclusion the wife of Bath’s argues for sovereignty to be held in the power of the woman over the man, while all of her husbanded of whom she was sovereignty have to die.

Abortion and Human Rights

The most important issue in balancing individual human rights with social responsibility in my point of view is abortion. The law that was passed so that abortions would be legal was a good decision. The anti-abortions have very sound points, but it should be up to the women to make her choice. Abortion has been debated for decades and always will be.
Ever since Roe vs. Wade, abortion has been a very hot topic. When Jane Roe sued for the right to have an abortion she was pregnant with an unwanted child. In the state of Texas where she lived, she could not find a doctor to perform the abortion because it was against the law. An abortion would only be performed if carrying a baby to full term would threaten the mother’s life. Roe had to have her baby and give it up for adoption. If abortions were legal at that time she would not have to go though such drastic measures. The law should stand that if a woman is seeking an abortion that she would have a safe place for it to be performed and it is legal. Many women have either lost their lives or had many complications for seeking out illegal abortions. By no means should a woman use abortion as a means of birth control, but she should have the right to choose when she brings a life into this world.
Anti-Abortionist believes that it is against the laws of God to have an abortion. If it is against God’s law, then it should between her and God’s if she will receive punishment for her decision. Some think it is still wrong to have an abortion if it threatens the mother’s life. Those who oppose abortions believe that if you don’t want your baby then you can give it up for adoption or kept it because there are organizations that can help you. Giving a child up for adoption is a good route if you don’t want to keep your baby. Sometimes these unwanted children sit in orphanages until they are eighteen. The tax papers are paying for these children. It is it right for society to pay for the mistake of others? I don’t believe so. Everyone has a responsibility to society and should be responsible in society. There are many forms of birth control but none are one hundred percent. So if a woman is in a situation in which she wants to terminate her pregnancy, she should be allowed without people yelling at her that she is a murderer.
Abortion is a very sensitive topic. There will always be controversy surrounding this issue. Having the right to choose should be a basic human right. This ensures that society won’t have to pay for the long term care of unwanted children. If you want to be a responsible citizen in society, you should not do anything that would put a burden on society. If keeping abortions legal is a way of keeping the burden off society then it so be it.

Mark Twain’s Huckleberry Finn

Jim and Huckleberry Finn’s growth throughout The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn set the stage for Daniel Hoffman’s interpretation in “From Black Magic-and White-in Huckleberry Finn.” Hoffman exhibits that through Jim’s relationship with Huckleberry, the river’s freedom and “in his supernatural power as interpreter of the oracles of nature” (110) Jim steps boldly towards manhood.
Jim’s evolution is a result of Twain’s “spiritual maturity.” Mark Twain falsely characterizes superstition as an African faith but, Daniel Hoffman explains that most folk lore in Huckleberry derives from European heritage. Tying your hair into knots with thread to defend against witches who ride their prey is even referenced in Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet. Mr. Hoffman then goes on to ask and answer “Why, then does Mark Twain make such a point of having only Negroes, children and riffraff as the bearers of folk superstitions in the recreated world of his youth?” (109) He clarifies that during the time Huck Finn was composed, Twain was living far from his childhood home. His memory of Uncle Dan’l, who Mark Twain divulges in his autobiography, was the origin of Jim, and his stories are skewed by Twain’s memory. Hoffman also believes that Twain infuses his ideas on “superstition: slaves: boyhood freedom” (109) It Is grouped together due to his experiences of his youth. “The minstrel stereotype, as we have scene, was the only possible starting point for a white author attempting to deal with a Negro character a century ago,” (110) is another of Hoffman’s takes on Mr. Twain’s situation.
Daniel Hoffman speculates that Mark Twain intertwines superstition and freedom. Our first look at Huck Finn is in The Adventures of Tom Sawyer when Tom sees him swinging around a dead cat. Huck and his dead cat symbolize freedom to “civilized” Tom. Freedom from manacles of society may seem ideal to Tom but, they hold a certain danger to Huck. Daniel believes the death hiding in the natural world scares Huckleberry and makes him long to control it. “For Huck, the omens are an acknowledgement of the fact of death.” (102) While Huck can try to dominate these powers in nature he is only a student compared to Jim. During the course of the book Jim comes from a man controlled by his fear of witches to controlling evils. With Jim’s power to predict the future he becomes more liberated. He finds strength in foreseeing death. Hoffman concludes that Jim’s power derives from the river and he only wields this power on the raft alone with Huck Finn. “The river god is indifferent to humanity: he runs on uncontaminated by the evils along his shores; asserting now and then in dominance and power over ‘the damned human race.’” (105) When they land on the shore or the Duke and King join them Jim loses his mystical powers. Huck returns to the care giver role. Jim is also able to cure the snakebite illustrating his dominance as a medicine man over the universe. Even during his captivity he holds on to the belief that he controls black magic. Jim sinks farther from his minstrel stereotype through his use of his black magic and freedom. He often passes his knowledge onto Huck Finn.
Jim’s knowledge of folk lore helps him to protect Huck. When the “House of Death” floats by Jim is first to explore the wreckage and finds Pap’s body. He shelters Huckleberry from this horrific truth. Hoffman implies that this knowledge allows Jim to assume the role of Huck’s father. Huck also takes on the role of Jim’s son by protecting him. “Huck now realizes that he is bound to Jim by ties too strong for mischievous trifling, ties so strong that he must break the strongest mores of the society he was raised in to acknowledge.” (105) Huck’s discovery of his genuine love for Jim causes him to defy society for his “fathers” well being. Though many believe Jim and Huck’s relationship is degrading to African Americans it is purely a father-son bond.
Mark Twain according to Hoffman wants Huck Finn and Jim to have liberty through their morals not freedom in society. Daniel Hoffman considers Jim’s legal emancipation as a step back from his heroism. While Jim resorts back to his former self, “grateful to the young white boss,” (111) Huckleberry plans to run from society again. Both men go through obstacles but both only find the “equivocal freedom of status.”

Teaching – Every Day Brings Something New

I started seriously thinking about what I wanted to do with my life, concerning my career, in the 11th grade. From my junior year until my first semester in college, I was certain my purpose in life was to teach. However, people I spoke with, including some family, friends, and even schoolteachers, repeatedly crushed this choice: “Why would you want to be a teacher? Don’t you know how much they make? Why would you want to deal with bratty kids all day? Don’t you know teaching is one of the most stressful jobs you can have?” Being the naive, 17 year old that I was, I listened, and changed my career choice-3 times! I went through 2 years of computer classes to become an administrative assistant, 1 year studying law for paralegalism and 1 ½ years focusing on business management. Throughout those 4 years of unfulfilled, the idea of teaching still lingered in my head. I started asking myself why I decided teaching was not for me. I discovered that even though teaching did carry a few negative aspects, they could never come close to the positive.

For the past 5 years, I have been coaching the varsity dance team at Wood haven High School. Although there have definitely been some difficult, stressful situations, I have found the experience very rewarding. The greatest thing about coaching is the satisfaction you feel after a student succeeds in what he or she has set out to accomplish-not only physically, but also mentally. Being a coach is more than just a 9 to 5 job. It’s more than staring at a computer for 8-10 hours, not caring about the people around you or your work. This is even more apparent in teaching in a classroom 5 days a week, for as much as 7-9 hours a day. Teaching is adventurous, challenging, and exciting, because every day brings something new. As a teacher, you’re not only working for a living, you are acting as a role model to every child around you. A teacher has the chance to change a child’s life everyday.

The main element of lifelong learning is to never stop learning. One must understand that there’s no such thing as a person who knows everything. Whether one is a teacher, rocket scientist, parent, or child, a human being’s capacity to learn new things is never ending. It’s very important to encourage students to remain “students” for a lifetime. By explaining to them the importance of open-mindedness, a child can learn to value other’s opinions before making his/her own conclusions. By teaching them they have something to bring to the table, they will learn that their opinions matter, regardless of how old they are, or who they’re speaking to. By encouraging them to learn something new everyday, they will one day understand just how important lifelong learning is to their life.

In respect to other areas of study that I would like to pursue, I have recently become very interested in Eastern’s program for communication and theater arts. Although I have already chosen this program for my minor, I find myself wanting to learn more than just basic overviews given in my classes. After I graduate with my teaching degree, I plan to further my education in this area by maybe taking some classes for fun, or maybe even getting another degree.

Because I have a full time job, a coaching job, and a full workload at school, I definitely have no free time. However, I have decided to give up my coaching job at the end of this year in order to dedicate more of my time to my classes. This decision has been extremely hard for me because of how much I adore my coaching job. However, getting good grades in school, and learning how to be the best teacher I can be is of more importance. This experience has been a lifelong lesson for me, because I have learned that to achieve certain goals, one must learn how to make sacrifices.

I feel that even though I’m not perfect, I have a good head on my shoulders. I am proud of the decisions I have made in the past, and have no regrets. I am responsible, dedicated, successful, and passionate about what I do. I think my behavior will serve as a good example to my students. I can’t wait to get out into the teaching field and learn more than I ever though possible.

How We Spend New Year’s Eve in Japan

How We Spend New Year’s Eve in Japan

What do you usually do on New Year’s Eve? Does your family have something special to do for the New Year? Maybe you have a party at the bar or your friend’s house, or you may spend time with your family. In Japan, the way of spending time on New Year’s Eve is pretty different from the American way.

In the morning, we Japanese people clean the whole house. This process is called Ousouji in Japan. This doesn’t mean that Japanese people clean the house only once a year. There is a special meaning for this cleaning. Its purpose is to welcome the New Year and to wish a better life than the former year. Cleaning the house, which is covered with annual dust, is a really important way to start a new year.

After finishing Ousouji, women start cooking Osechi. This is a traditional Japanese dish which is eaten a few days after the New Year. The dish is based on fish, beans, and egg. We eat Osechi because there is an old story saying one shouldn’t use a cooking knife within three days from the New Year. This gives a break to the mother who cooks every day.

While women are cooking Osechi, men are hanging Shimenawa, which is a kind of decoration made from rice stems. It is hung on the front door. This custom comes from the farmer’s wish to have a good harvest next year. Today, we wish for good fortune and a good year.

Evening time, after we finish preparing for New Year’s, we normally watch a TV program called Singing Battle Between the Red and the White Team. It has been on the air for about 50 years and keeps over 50 percent of the audience’s ratings every year. We think about this program as a part of a closing moment of the year.

While, or after watching singing battle, we eat Toshikoshi Soba, which means “New Year’s Eve Noodle” in English. As you know, the noodle is long, so we wish longer life, including healthy body, by eating Toshikoshi Soba.

Finally, the last thing to do for New Year’s Eve is to listen to Juya No Kane, which means “the watch-night bell” in English. This bell is like a countdown in America. But we ring it 108 times. This tradition comes from the thought of Buddhism. The idea of this tradition is to hit away poorness, doubt, selfishness, unhappiness, and so on.

In conclusion, Japanese New Year’s Eve starts from cleaning house, cooking Osechi, putting Shimenawa, watching singing battle, eating noodle, and ends up with listening to the Juya No Kane. If we don’t do these things, we feel like we can’t celebrate the New Year. New Year’s Eve is a very important moment for Japanese people not only to prepare for the New Year, but also to look back upon our life from the past year.

Women in World History

After reading the works of Hughes and Hughes, Ward, and Pomeroy, it seems as though all the information is congruent in the readings. The facts presented in Hughes and Hughes that also exist in the works by Pomeroy and Ward. The repetition solidifies the facts as stated by all three authors. The reoccurrence between the three pieces shows similarities. The similarities show the reader the strength of the information. Women of ancient Egypt had some of the same rights as men, they could rule as long as they showed some masculine traits to help the people understand why they were in power.

In Ward and Pomeroy’s texts, there is information that the Egyptian women had the same legal rights as the Egyptian men. “The women of the family could not only administer the family property, but could also dispute legal decisions and be major litigants defending what they conceived to be their rights of inheritance” (Ward 7). The women of ancient Egypt were able to accomplish a lot on their own. It was possible for fathers to leave property to their daughters in their wills so that the daughter could be self sufficient, should the need arise. A wife could even help run the estate with her husband. Women were also allowed to attend parties where men were present. This was an uncommon practice that women of ancient times were not allowed to do, the women would have to leave the room. Traditionally women were not allowed to be seen in the presence of a group of men, except in the case of the women of ancient Egypt.

Aside from social privileges, women were also granted economic privileges. Traditionally a wife would be dependent upon her husband for economic support, however the women of ancient Egypt were not completely dependent.

Should a divorce take place, the legal system moved in to assure a fair settlement….First, the husband and wife each took back whatever property they had contributed at the time of marriage. Second, any additional property that had accrued during the marriage was divided between them: two-thirds to the husband, one-third to the wife. In this way, the woman became financially independent, did not have to return to her own family, and might even be considered a good prospect for a second marriage (Ward 7).

The division of property was important because the women were allowed to have their own lives after marriage. Ancient Egyptian women were not a complete dependant on their husbands, she could own her own property, and she could make money on her own. Independent women could survive in ancient Egypt.

One of the most famous characters of ancient Egypt was a woman Pharaoh by the name of Cleopatra VII, commonly known today as Cleopatra. Cleopatra became queen when she was just eighteen years old, and all it took for her to be queen was to marry her ten year old brother, Ptolemy XIII. In order to rule in a male dominated society, there needed to be a male sitting on the throne. It was not necessary for a female to share the throne. She was allowed to rule until her brother matured enough to take over the throne, by the time that her brother was deemed ready to take the throne, Cleopatra VII had arranged a successful administration and she raised an army to fight her brother for the throne. At that time, Caesar was gaining power. During a trip to Egypt, he told Cleopatra and her brother to share the responsibilities of the throne. After the death of her brother Ptolemy XIII, who died in battle, Cleopatra had to marry her other brother Ptolemy XIV, who was eleven at the time. Thus, she could maintain her power. Cleopatra was considered a very shrewd ruler, she knew how to manipulate people to do what she wanted and she knew how to maintain her power until she was forced to commit suicide. “When her handmaiden Charmion described Cleopatra’s death perfectly as ‘fitting for the descendant of so many kings,’ she used the masculine form of the Greek word for ‘descendant’” (Pomeroy 28). The manner of her death was very important to the people of ancient Egypt due to the masculine image their female rulers presented. Another instance is Hatshepsut, who reigned from about 1473 BCE to 1458 BCE and when she ruled “she was publicly portrayed as male. Male pronouns were used and statues depicted her with a beard and dressed in a male kilt, although with breasts. Evidently she had to become a cross-dresser on official occasions. This engendering a female ruler as male is frequently found in societies when female political authority is an anomaly” (Hughes and Hughes 29). In both instances, the female rulers had to show some form of masculinity due to the nature in which they ruled. This masculine image is an explanation for how well they did in power as if the people of ancient Egypt saw their female rulers as males.

The women needed to show that they had the ability to control their own destiny, they could own land, they could go to court and fight for what was theirs, and they could even rule a country. The women of ancient Egypt had some freedoms that were not given to many other women of the same time period. All three authors have the same central opinion and facts in their texts. While women of ancient Egypt had some freedoms, they still had to conform to what the ancient Egyptian society wanted in order to rule effectively.

Is Death Natural ?

Many of the most beautiful and meaningful facets of life are the way they are£¬ because they are ephemeral.
I know that death is natural; Life runs its course before coming around again. Something present in or produced by nature is natural, such as an earthquake or typhoon, or a poisonous mushroom. Death is natural in the sense that to die is to conform to the ordinary course of living things in nature.
Death has been modeled as an exponential increase in the rate of illnesses with age.
Even with no micro-organisms attacking, the body is not well enough designed to function indefinitely. Something always breaks down eventually. What breakdowns, how many, and when they happen, is randomly distributed among individuals, except for conformance to average delays which may have been sculpted by evolution.
Some of those functions our medicine can’t re-establish or substitute for and some of those are necessary for life.
In general, death is an unremarkable event in nature. To die of “natural causes” is not to expire in old age, as is the case in modern human societies, but to typically die young.
Average human life spans between 20 and 30 years for most of our species history. Most people today are thus living highly unnaturally long lives. Because of the high incidence of infectious disease, accidents, starvation, and violent death among our ancestors, very few of them lived much beyond 60 or 70. There was therefore little selection pressure to evolve the cellular repair mechanisms (and pay their metabolic costs). As a result of these circumstances in the distant past, we now suffer the inevitable decline of old age: damage accumulates at a faster pace than it can be repaired; tissues and organs begin to malfunction; and then we die.
It may turn out to be impossible to live forever, strictly speaking, even for those who are lucky enough to survive to such a time when technology has been perfected, and even under ideal conditions. The amount of matter and energy that our civilization can lay its hands on before they recede forever beyond our reach is finite in the current most favored cosmological models.
As for age and death, one of the biggest factors actually has to do with cell replication. Most of our cells are not meant to live forever ¡­. We are meant to die. Your cells divide and divide and divide and their daughter cells do the same, so one and such forth.
With every cell division, DNA from one cell is replicated for the next. At the ends of these DNA strands there are sequences called Telomeres. For most of the cells in our body, with each replication this telomere sequence gets shorter. Understand the telomere sequence has no purpose, other than to protect the important part of DNA from being cut off from these shortenings. It is thought that one of the reasons we age is that these telomeres get too short, or disappear entirely simply by the cell of an older individual being a product of thousands, if not millions, of divisions.
Many of us live our lives striving for the infinite, for our own immortality. We refuse to acknowledge our own passing placement in the web of life and in doing so we fail to see our own beauty. It has become our mission to forestall death. Everyday we exercise, eat right, take our vitamins in an attempt to suspend the inevitable. However, the fact remains that in the final analysis there is always death. Even people who have accepted this fact often forget their death can be controlled. We can rightfully be concerned with how and when we die. Today we have a responsibility to reconstruct our understandings of death which have been vitiated by denial and fear. To live full, meaningful lives we must embrace our mortality.

Importance of Feste in Twelfth Night

Feste, the amusing clown, plays a most important part in the play. He is able to take on several roles, and is indeed “for all waters”; from serious to comic, learned to nonsensical, the wit or the practical joker; just as the occasion seems to suggest. Because he is a part of both the main and sub plot, Feste is the character, who links both parts of the play together, making Twelfth Night a whole.
The clown contributes towards the humorous entertainment of this play through his numerous puns and jokes. He is a source of laughter, not because we are humored by his “foolery”; for he proves to be no fool at all; but rather because he amuses us with his brilliant wit. Having mastered the art of jesting, Feste is sensitive of his profession, always aware of the circumstances he is in and the appropriateness of this folly.
Feste is able to prevent any delusions of grandeur by a reminder that foolishness is a condition common to all mankind whether one is king or servant. It is Malvolio’s vanity that convinces Feste to take part in the joke played on the steward. As “Sir Topas”, and Malvolio’s `prosecutor` Feste attempted to help Malvolio realize that there was “no darkness but ignorance”.
With Feste’s help, we are able to attain a better understanding of the other characters in the play- revealing their true personalities, which are sometimes unseen, not only by us, the audience, but also by the characters themselves. He shows Olivia how unrealistic and excessive her mourning for her brother’s death has been, he tells Orsino how foolish he is for languishing in a mood of love-sick melancholy for Olivia and points out how mercurial his personality is, and he makes a fool out of the pompous Malvolio. “Foolery, sir, does walk about the orb like the sun- it shines everywhere” says Feste.
Feste, however, never takes sides with any of the characters, and in this way, he becomes a kind of commentator for the play. He is able to examine the characters, revealing the bare truth about them and he unites the main and sub-plot in a similar way. In his songs, Feste is ever aware of the physical existence of life, death, and love, and his music often brings a touch of reality and solemnity to the play.
Thus, we see that the function of the fool is both serious and comic. It is a paradox aptly summed up by Viola when she says of Feste: “This fellow is wise enough to play the fool”.

The Role of Communication in the Animal Industry

The animal industry is a growing field of interest, and in this growing field lies the value of communication. Communication plays a crucial role in Animal Science through written, oral, visual, and electronic communication. These types of communication are also useful when it comes to job searching. Dr. Brad Skaar shared with me his views on the value of communication in the discipline of Animal Science.

Animal Science places a great value on communication. Dr. Skaar shared that he felt communication was very important, and since technology in the field of Animal Science is rapidly expanding he feels that an even greater emphasis is put on communication. Skaar provided the example of professionals being able to communicate the important technological lingo to users or stakeholders. In this sense I feel communicating with others in Animal Science, as well as those throughout the agricultural division is a crucial part of our lives today as technology increases.

Different types of communication are used to relay messages to others throughout the field. These types of communication include written, oral, visual, and electronic styles. Dr. Skaar expressed that when it comes to means of communication, it really is dependant upon the target audience. He felt that visual communication was dramatically critical, and that most times this form of communication was left up to the advertisers. He conveyed that oral communication as well as written, are used mostly in teaching. Although they are used to explain, justify and clarify, thus being a vital part of the Animal Science discipline. Skaar did express that electronic communication was no less important than the rest, and it was becoming a bigger part in the industry. I agree with Dr. Skaar’s views on these areas of communication, and I feel that as technology evolves, a bigger emphasis will be placed upon electronic communication.

When it comes to finding a job in the field of animal science, there are three main ways to go about searching. These three ways are networking, websites, and professional journals. These three methods of communicating position openings are all very different. Dr. Skaar made the remark that the primary way to locate a job would be through networking. He goes on to say, “It’s who you know.” Experience, as well as internships, are helpful and well worth the time and effort. Dr. Skaar al! so stated that websites and professional journals are currently not the most reliable sources of job finding. I agree with Dr. Skaar, I feel a person needs to prove themselves to get into the field. Networking is a way of showing others who someone is and what they have done. Therefore networking would be the most efficient way to find a job in the Animal Science field.

Dr. Skaar also had three pieces of advice to give to first year student in such a competitive field. The first being to force yourself to develop an intensive work ethic. The second is to learn to love your discipline, and do not get bored with it. He stated, “I truly believe that a person needs to love all aspects of their job.” The third is to learn to balance work and personal life. Dr. Skaar truly believes in the fact that we are not born to work, but more or less enjoy life. Therefore, if we enjoy our jobs we would not consider it to be working. Dr. Skaar also said that if we do all of these things, everything else would just fall into place. After hearing Dr. Skaar’s advice, I feel that he hit the nail right on the head. People need to love what they do, and not think any differently.

In closing, Dr. Brad Skaar shared his views on the discipline of agriculture as a whole. He says, “Agriculture is exciting, and no matter what there will always be an interest in this particular field.” People need to eat, so as agriculture goes, there will always be a prosperous industry. He also stated that he felt he believes people need an interaction with animals. “I believe that without an interaction with animals, people would not be able to survive.” Dr. Skaar’s views became clear, and I once again agree with his reasoni! ng. Animals are here to meet our needs, and ultimately there is always going to be a demand for expertise in the field of Animal Science.

Animal Science is and will always be a dramatic part in the lives of humans. This is why communication in this particular field is essential. As technology increases the forms of communication in Animal Science are changing, although some do stay the same. Job finding in this field is and may always be by means of networking. Communication has become a fundamental tool in the field of Animal Science as well as various other fields.

Alcohol

Alcohol is a compound of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, which can be combined together in many different ways. There are many different kinds of alcohol, the commonest being called ethyl alcohol. Ethyl alcohol, or ethanol, is present in varying amounts in beers and wines, and in distilled liquors such as whiskey, gin, and rum. Alcohol consumption touches many million people around the world. The use of alcohol depends on an individual’s social, cultural, or religious background.
One of the earliest mentions of wine making is from an Egyptian papyrus dated 3,500 BC. However, alcohol drinking is thought to go back almost as far as the human race does. Alcohol has been central to social, religious and personal use all over the world throughout history.
When an individual consumes alcohol there are both short term and long term effects.
The most immediate effect of alcohol consumption is change of mood. Even though alcohol is makes you feel excitement, happiness and relaxation it is in fact a depressant. Alcohol in the bloodstream causes impairment of motor co-ordination and slows down central nervous system activity, which gives the impression of clumsiness and can lead to alcohol related accidents. The more intoxicated a person has slurred speech, blurred vision and the loss of balance. Furthermore it switches off the part of the brain that controls judgment which can result in greater risk taking. However drinking in very large quantities can damage vital bodily functions which may lead to coma, or even death.
Alcohol also impairs the memory of an intoxicated person which reduces the drinker’s ability to remember information that he or she has learned before going out for drinks. In addition, the attention span of the drinker radically decreases for periods of up to forty-eight hours after drinking. This may affect the academic performance of a student and his or her ability to study in class. Furthermore consumption of alcohol can damage the functioning of the immune system. Hence, this will increase the chance of getting colds and other diseases.
Drinking for long periods of time can have harmful effects on the body, alcohol is in fact a poisonous substance, having it circulating in the body will contribute to severe intestinal dysfunction. However, alcohol alone is not the sole cause of these problems; it simply increases the risk of developing certain diseases/dysfunction.
There is no denying the fact that, Alcohol use is in excess in our culture. Alcohol has been legally promoted to the point where most people rely on alcoholic beverages in order to have a good time. This is to our cultural shame. Although most people will refute this claim; Rare is the occasion where alcohol is not present. Few and far between are the restaurants and entertainment facilities that do not provide and promote the drinking of alcoholic beverages, and are willing to allow patrons to drink till they are drunk. Despite numerous ads promoting ‘designated drivers’, all to often the driver is intoxicated, and is a potential danger to himself, his passengers and other traffic and pedestrians.
View any advertisement for alcohol and you will see that they promote drinking as the means to a ‘good time’. And the ad companies have done a very good job, especially towards the youth. Teenage drinking is on the increase. Alcoholism is on the increase.
Alcohol dependency and alcohol misuse can ruin families, careers, marriages and lives. It is time to rethink our own values concerning the drinking of alcohol, the promotion of alcohol, and the availability of alcoholic beverages. I am not advocating prohibition; only responsibility, and asking the question, “What influence does my drinking habit have on my family, my friends and my work.?”

Gay Marriage

Act and Rule Utilitarianism are said to be very similar and maybe even collapse into each other when trying to distinguish one from the other. One article has distinguished between act and rule utilitarianism by referring to them as “extreme” and “restricted” utilitarianism. This article claims that the extreme or act version of utilitarianism will use the rules of morality as rules of thumb only. Those rules can be changed at any time in the interest of the greatest good or greatest happiness.
This article claims that act utilitarianism is superior to rule utilitarianism because the act utilitarian recognizes the principle of utility as overriding. The act utilitarian recognizes that even though it is not possible in every instance to be sure that the course of action is not in favor of the one who acts, and that it may not be the case in every instance that we have time to weigh the action at hand. It seems odd to claim that if we did have time, if we were sure that our actions were not in favor of ourselves, and that we were sure that the action against a rule was the right one, that we should not perform an action that does not conform to a rule. Overall, this article claims that to act on a rule when we have had the chance to weigh the benefits, is to treat the rule superstitiously. We would be treating it superstitiously because we are acting as if it was an object of worship.
However, another article claims that it cannot be correct to choose act utilitarianism over rule utilitarianism because it would lead to the destruction of important social relationships, such as the family. This leads to the differences between instrumental relationships, and diffuse relationship. There are some human relationships that would collapse if the act utilitarian principle were used as the principle of action.
An example is presented about a husband and wife who discuss whether it would be to the husband’s greatest benefit to leave his wife if she was ill and had little chance of regaining her health. Although this is a very insensitive example, it is concluded that a consequences of weighing the benefits is that it destroys the family, which is not of little importance or instrumental value to many people. This means that a diffuse relationship is one that should be supported, so that the family is not considered to be an instrumental relationship. An example of an instrumental relationship would be in a business or social setting in which certain people are given tasks that they must complete, but they cannot and should not expect support outside of that area.
This article concluded that for the most desirable standards to be observed, men must have confidence in each other’s behavior. It is implied here that rules are logical reasons for the choice of action, and that they are logical reasons because they will tend to produce the greatest happiness for the greatest number.
The opposing article however, makes a distinction between logical rules and guides for action. It claims that rules do not give reason for acting, rather an indication of the probable actions of others, which help to find what would be our own most rational course of action. This opposing article believes that the rule utilitarian is acting irrationally in following rules in every single case, when it is that not following the rules in some instances would actually produce the greater benefit. It is then believed that the only rational course of action is to allow people to override the rules in the interest of the greatest utility.
Each person is very different in what they believe. That is why there are opposing arguments and disagreements when dealing with different topics. On the topic of act and rule utilitarianism however, rule utilitarianism seems to be the more beneficial utility for the greatest number. As discussed above, relationships would deteriorate greatly if act utilitarianism was the principle followed. A society needs a set of rules to follow in order to survive and prosper. Although certain people break these rules, there is a great amount of trust that exists because everyone is not going around making promises that they cannot keep. An employee of a company can work comfortably and efficiently knowing that his or her boss is going to pay them the amount of money promised when first hired.
If everyone followed the act principle, no one would ever know if they could be trusted. The decisions that need to be made should not always be left up to the individual person because who is to say that their judgment is the best. The rules that have been set up for each individual society are there so benefit the people in that society and to guide in a way that will produce the greatest good for the greatest number of people.

Global Warming is Real

There is a problem, one which we cannot ignore. We must recognize this as a first step in coming up with solutions and bringing about change. Still, there are entities masquerading behind false pretenses that cultivate climate skepticism. Climate skepticism is a propaganda which states that global warming is nothing but natural, and that the human race has nothing to do with it whatsoever! They try to prove using elaborate schemes that climate change is a scam, and discredit with bogus scientific findings those which are true and verifiable discoveries. One of the latter, however, expels any more doubts that humans are not at all liable to the anomalous changes in the environment, and this is the discovery of the CFC-generated hole in the ozone layer. Governments and corporations with a lot at stake cover up this ugly truth by planting uncertainties and circulating false information among the general population.

And then, there are those people who are in complete denial or are simply oblivious to the rampant and seemingly unstoppable chain reaction of the climate change phenomenon, and to the fact that it is man-made. Isn’t the Earth hot enough? Aren’t polar ice caps melting fast enough? Isn’t desertification obvious enough for these people? Guess not. Living life as if it was their own, caring for nothing else but their pathetic, borrowed lives. Never did it occur to them that there are other creatures – people, plants and animals – that coexist with them. A grim future awaits the younger generations as a consequence of their actions – and inactions.

We are all responsible, whether we admit it or not. We are accountable for the damages we continuously and carelessly impose upon the Earth. Nature has means of restoring and repairing itself, much like a wound that the body heals. But too much is too much. Man-made disruptions on Nature have finally taken its toll and are coming back to haunt us. We must accept the truth and do something now! We must think with a worldwide perspective and act with renewed optimism in our own communities.

How To Throw a Rich Girl Party on a Poor Girl Budget

Summer is (finally) here, which means it’s time to par-tay! Hosting a fab blow out doesn’t mean you have to blowout your budget. Just remember: it’s all in the (inexpensive) details, and a little bit of thought can go a long way in making your reasonable party ritzy!

Etsy is your best friend. We are crazy about these chic Geronimo balloons, but we’re not crazy about their super expensive price tag. Luckily, you can find this same look for less on Etsy. These fabulous oversized balloons are sure to make a statement in any space—your apartment, a rooftop, or even a dark bar. They also make great photo props for the hundreds of Facebook pictures and instagram we know you”ll be taking. In fact, Etsy is the perfect place to find all kinds of stunning party décor—garland, favors, paper goods, you name it—on the cheap.

It’s all in the details. You don’t have to go overboard with a party theme and matching decorations, but adding small, inexpensive touches like paper straws or a decorative garland will make your gathering appear put together. Keep the big stuff neutral—table cloths, streamers, serving platters—and then pick five to seven small items like personalized napkins, fun paper plates, or a printed banner to spice it all up. We love whimsical details like a little confetti sprinkled in the bottom of your guest’s glasses or plastic neon shades to dance in to add some silliness to your soiree.

Skip the paper. In this digital age, there’s no better way to spread the word about your party than using the web. Plus, you don’t need us to tell you which option is better for the environment. So skip the costly, cumbersome paper invitations and turn to Paperless Post or Punchbowl. Not only are these e-vites creative and easy to design, but best of all, they are FREE. You’ll be saving a whole lot of cash and a bunch of trees by going the paperless route. Plus, with all the money you save on invitations, you can invest more in decorations or food/drinks to make your party rock.

Go for cheap eats. Every great party needs a solid menu, but you don’t have to spend a fortune on fancy catering. Enlist a few close friends to bring some different dishes. Or better yet, turn your gathering into a potluck! Ask everyone to bring their favorite family dish; everyone will feel at home, and these family favorites are sure to spark conversation. If that’s not for you, think about offering a bunch of light bites instead of a full entrée. Check out Trader Joe’s for cheap, yet delicious hors d’oeurves. Some of our favorites are the chicken parmesan lollipops, stuffed mushroom caps, and feta and caramelized onion bites. The best part? No one will suspect that these goodies are premade from the grocery store, leaving you with all of the hostess-with-the-moistest credit.

Leave a sweet taste in their mouths. What better way to save money and leave your guests with a lasting impression than by combining dessert and party favors in one package? Send your guests home with a sweet memory of your party. Recycle mason jars by filling them with the ingredients for delicious dessert recipes. Or, you could bake your mom’s famous chocolate chip cookies and slip them into cellophane CD envelopes and tie them up with a ribbon. These party favors are truly the trifecta: inexpensive, thoughtful, and delicious.

Technology Can Affect Ethics And Culture

In today’s work environment, workers are expected to know more than ever before. With the growing of technology comes more knowledge that end-users must know, so it is important for workers not to be distracted by unethical practices. However, with technology also comes a more defined sense of communication, which can be good or bad. This improved communication can not only encourage unethical behavior, but it can discourage it as well. This paper discusses how technology can encourage and discourage unethical behaviors, it explains how these behaviors can shape the type of work environment that a company promotes, and it identifies how Human Resources (HR) uses technology to influence culture.
Technology can encourage unethical practices in a number of ways. The ways that I describe involve communication of messages and images. Today, the media can reflect some very vulgar and offending messages. Especially via computer, the perpetrator of these messages can offend employees, within their own culture or in another culture, through e-mails, instant messages or unsuspecting software. Imagine being at work, and an e-mail from an unknown address comes in and your curiosity gets the better of you. When you read the e-mail, there is a very offending joke about your ethnic heritage or culture. The e-mail, obviously, was unethical and distracted you from your duties as an employee at your company. The same can be said about instant messages. For example, while your busy at work an instant message comes in and shows a link to a web-site that you happen to be curious about. When you click on the link, an image of pornography appears on the home page. The material offends you because you are happily married, a priest, or just someone with high moral standards. This is another way that technology can encourage unethical behavior and distract you from your job. Although technology can be a distraction through unethical means, it can also hinder unethical practices through policy.
Many companies already have policies that guard against unethical practices, but some companies need to implement new policies or reform their existing one. Many popular practices are used to stop unethical use of the computer. Regularly updated virus protection software can reduce the amount of viruses that your company computer might catch. However, if your virus protector is not updated, it may even slow your computer down (Entech 2003). Always be skeptical when surfing the net, especially when viewing e-mails, because e-mail attachments, free downloads, and other computer enhancements can contain spy-ware which can damage or delete your computer files. If you have Microsoft Windows, you should make sure that you update it monthly because Windows is constantly providing updates for our computers. Finally, make sure that you do not bring any infected software from home, because viruses can be brought from home and transferred on to your computer at work possibly damaging important files. All of these activities can also corrupt or delete customer’s data. Having an operating system that is well defined for your companies needs can stop many unethical practices from happening, which can also shape the culture that a company promotes.
Depending on how culturally diverse a company is, ethics can affect a company dramatically. With today’s culturally diverse workforce, there are a wide variety of ethical standards to be aware of. If these standards are not considered, many workers or potential workers can be offended. However, if they are met, it becomes easier for a company to meet their goals through the advantages of a diverse workforce. For instance, if a company hires a French employee for an upper management position, the employer might want to know some of his or her work ethics. Depending on how the employer reacts to the French’s work ethics, the employer may or may not want to hire them. The only thing that the employer had to do was Google “French work ethic,” and a detailed description of French work ethics supplied the information needed. Consequentially, in this case, work ethics can shape a company’s culture for the better or for the worst, depending on how co-workers and managers react among each other’s cultural diversity. If the employer were to realize that in order to obtain the diversity that a cross-functional team has to offer, sacrifices (training) need to be made; his/her company would likely grow in the long run. This is why it is important to have an HR manager handy to make these decisions.
An HR manager can do many things with technology to affect a companies culture. For instance, some companies have a wide variety of cultural backgrounds. If the HR managers of these companies do some research on the Internet, they will find an abundance of information about the different cultures of their companies employees. Then they can make copies of the information and make it a mandatory duty for each employee (including management) to learn the different cultures. This might prevent future conflicts of offending natures. Another thing that they could do is make sure that the company has a strict policy about e-mails, Internet surfing, and malicious software that could offend people. Furthermore, purchase any software that can prevent any of these computer problems.
Technology can be used effectively or destructively to set ethical standards and shape a companies culture. Furthermore, HR managers can be an essential component in the decision making process of how to shape a companies culture, because they are used to dealing with a variety of different people (at least more so than their co-workers). Still, it is important to know how to use technology effectively in the shaping of a company’s culture so the company can take advantage culture’s benefits.

Seven Types Of Guys Women Can’t Resist

Always wondered why some guys always manage to get the best of girls?

Well, the secret is not good looks or a well-defined six pack, but the fact that women simply get attracted to certain personality traits and flock to men who possess them.

Below are seven of these “ideal types” of guys that women are drawn to, and an explanation as to why these guys are so appealing, reports Fox News .
The list could help you understand what women are looking for, and most importantly, to make sure that you fit the bill.

The Romantic Guy
He believes in classic romance. He is constantly bringing her flowers and chocolate and lighting candles during dinner. He calls her often to let her know he is thinking about her and looks into her eyes and tells her how he feels.

Why he is so irresistible: A woman loves to feel appreciated, and the romantic guy makes this happen. He uses romantic gestures to show her he is thinking about her. As an added bonus, she feels free to reciprocate and act on her own romantic tendencies.

The Confident Guy
He is totally secure and sure of himself. He is assertive in public and gives off an aura of power and control. In a relationship, he does not get jealous of other men; he does not feel threatened by his girlfriend’s male friends or co-workers.

Why he is so irresistible: Women are attracted to confident men. Consider this: If you think you are great, she will probably be influenced to think the same. The confident man does not seek approval from women, and this makes them want him even more.

The Artistic Guy
The artistic guy is spontaneous and lives for the moment. Often, he will use his creativity to woo her, such as with a song he has written about her or a painting he has made for her.
Why he is so irresistible: Every woman wants to feel unique and special. There is no better way to make her feel this way than to use her as your muse or your source of inspiration. She is intrigued by the artistic guy’s creative mind and especially by the way he incorporates her into his art.

The Foreign Guy
He comes from a faraway exotic country and he might have a cute accent or a unique way of seeing the world. His social customs and everyday behaviour can be a little quirky, but he always manages to come off as uniquely charming.

Why he is so irresistible: Women often choose this kind of guy if they are curious about the world, but most of the appeal comes down to a fascination with dating someone from another culture.

The Free Spirit Guy (aka the Bad Boy)
The free spirit guy goes where the wind takes him – and the wind usually takes him on some kind of wacky adventure. He might ride a motorcycle, or he might skip work to take her on a last-minute road trip, but this guy does not worry too much about the consequences- he just sees where his own devices take him.

Why he is so irresistible: Every woman wants a bit of a rebel. She loves
his carefree attitude and hopes that it will rub off on her too. The bad boy spirit adds an element of youthfulness to the relationship and she loves to try taming him, although she knows shell never actually succeed.

The Intelligent/Witty Guy
He instigates conversations that are intellectually stimulating and listens to what she has to say in response. He makes her laugh with his clever sense of humour and has an uncanny ability to make politics interesting. He can shoot the breeze with her for hours and it will never get boring.

Why he is so irresistible: An intellectual connection is a big part of what sustains a relationship and if you can show her that you have got that, she will be hooked pretty quickly.

The Considerate Guy
He holds open her car door and pulls out her chair. He foots the bill for dinner and makes sure to offer her dessert. He always asks her out with reasonable notice and picks her up at her door. He is generally sensitive to how she is feeling and when she is ready to go home.

Why he is so irresistible: Once a woman has gone through her share of the bad guy, the rude guy and the not-calling-her-back guy, she will likely re-evaluate her priorities. It takes a bit of maturity on her part to realize this, but eventually most girls come around and realize that they want a guy who will treat them well in the long run.

But, think twice before copying any of the above character types, for women can know when you are faking it.

What Women Want In Man

Tall, dark, handsome, rich with a good sense of humour – this indeed forms the perfect package when it comes to choosing a potential male partner.

However, women at times, expect a little too in terms of what they want in a man. Be it physical appearance, behavioural traits or personality attributes, women can’t stop asking for more!

Several studies in the past have shed light on the qualities that women look forward to in their Prince Charming and most girls tend to stick to these parameters when it comes to making their choice. Be it a man’s intelligence, his voice tone, romantic nature, pricey possessions, dancing skills etc, women tend to relate to these qualities and pick the best out of the lot.

Relationship and marriage counsellor Dr. Gitanjali Sharma explains, “The evolution theory states that women seem to seek signs of resource acquisition in men to maximize prospects for their kids. They prefer older men who tend to be more advanced in their careers, or of higher status in society and are therefore likely to be a better bet in terms of providing resources.”

Here’s the complete guide for men to know what exactly it takes to impress a woman…

Be intelligent : Intelligence is a sure shot way to woo a woman, not only while talking to her, but also during lovemaking moments. A study confirmed that when it comes to picking a bed-mate, both for one-night stands and long-term relationships, women prefer intelligent men to dumb jocks.

Expert say : Marriage counsellor Dr. Kamal Khurana opines, “No matter how financially liberal a man is, intelligence still remains a quintessential quality. When it comes to taking decisions in emotional and physical matters, women expect men to be in the driving seat. Having an intelligent mate also brings women a certain reassurance that their needs and demands will be well satisfied with better communication and understanding.”

Deep baritone : Masculinity comes alive in your voice, so if you have a softer pitch, which sounds feminine, isn’t really a great thing to rely on. Women usually look out for men who can be assertive, tough and equally passionate using their voice. A research suggested that women prefer men with deep voices because it signals strength, dominance and good genes.

Expert say : Dr. Gitanjali Sharma says, “Women are approximately seven times more attracted towards a man who has a deeper voice and a superior position and a dominating work style. High-pitch voices hint towards a pro-social behaviour, so women find such men more reliable.”

Be romantic not a rich : A simple recipe to win a woman’s heart is to give her loads of love and keep up the romance. It’s not always the case that a girl chases a guy for materialistic reasons, rather women seek romantic mates. A recent survey revealed that most women believe that their perfect man needs to be romantic and not rich.

Expert say : Dr. Khurana states, “The concept of nuclear family has off late become quite popular, so the love, care and affection that were missing earlier, a woman wants that feeling of fulfillment from her life partner. Romance enhances love and emotions, whereas money or wealth is only for materialistic comfort. Men may shower their female partners with money, but the luxuries of no use unless your mate is not there with you to enjoy the good times.”

Drive a cool car : Women are keen to hang out with a self-made man with a secured future. Whether that stature comes from your bank balance or an expensive car – make the most of your dream wheels to flatter women. A study confirmed that driving a flashy car really does make a person more attractive to women.

Expert say : Dr. Gitanjali asserts, “Materialistic needs are priorities, depending on the woman’s lifestyle Women are naturally drawn to men who can provide for them and ensure the survival of their children. Thus they are attracted to strong and vigorous men who exhibit behaviour that indicate high status.”

Look sexy with more hair : A clean shaven body or a half bald look can be a turn-off for your female partner. A research found that ladies looking for love on dating websites are more likely to contact men with a full head than those who are thinning on top.

Expert say : Dr. Khurana adds, “In the past, men were never into makeovers and beauty treatments and they were simply crude. And women have grown up seeing their dads and brothers in a typical macho man look, so this orientation of preferring men with more hair has been there with them since childhood.”

Dance like Travolta : It’s not always that women get attracted to men who can do sensuous salsa or romantic ball dance, so let your flamboyance do the talking. According to a research, John Travolta’s flamboyant dance style in the cult film ‘Saturday Night Fever’ is of the kind that is the most attractive to women.

Expert say : “Highly-coordinated, complex movements are attractive to women as they see dancing to be a co-ordination between a healthy body and a controlled mind. So a man who is able to dance in a flamboyant style is judged as a person who has control over his mind and likes to work on his mind. Your dancing style may reflect what is going on inside a person’s head. If they are self-conscious, it will be reflected in the way they dance,” explains Gitanjali.

Battlefield Redefined

Jyoti Karki* was just three months away from accomplishing her most cherished dream of becoming an army officer. But fate had something else in store for this 28-year-old.
Karki was caught in the bedroom of one of her female trainers at the Nepal Army (NA)’s training academy in Kharipati, under what the then NA leadership deemed ‘questionable circumstances’. The army then kept her in solitary confinement within the barrack for 45 days, and in 2007, she was expelled from for alleged violation of military discipline.
“I felt like it was the end of everything. I did nothing but sit in my room and cry for the next five months,” recalls Karki, who is also the daughter of a retired army officer.
Things got worse over time as gossip spread, with people questioning her ‘character’, to the point where she had to stop going outside the house altogether. A few people even conjectured that she had been kicked out of the army for having conceived a child.
Tired of all this, Karki decided it was time to start a new life, away from her family and community. And she was given valuable help in this by Bhakti Shah, her trainer, who had been expelled in the same case.
Today, six years since the incident that ruined both their careers in the army, Karki and Shah have taken up the roles of leaders within the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender and Intersex (LGBTI) movement in Nepal. The two are currently living together and pursuing their mission of advocating the rights of gender minorities.
While Karki is the country head of the team that documents rights violations faced by the community, Shah oversees regional issues and organizes campaigns under the Sexual and Gender Minority Student Forum. Both work together to conduct awareness programmed in colleges as well as doing a radio programmed on the subject.
“The opportunity to work for the LGBTI community has been empowering for me,” says Karki, adding that the partnership with Shah has played a key role in bringing her into the light.
Shah, who had been jailed for 60 days following the incident in 2006, now identifies himself as a transgender man. This lance corporal from the far-western district of Achham had already imparted training to three batches of female officer cadets and was expecting a promotion to the rank of constable when he was given marching orders by the army.
The two months he’d spent in military detention had rendered him physically weak, and necessitated treatment at a hospital in Kathmandu. The whole time, he’d been worried about Karki, and had tried contacting her over the phone. Karki, on the other hand, had blamed Shah for her dismissal and ignored his calls for a while. It was only four months after they’d been expelled that they finally spoke to one another. Shah had then asked Karki to visit the Blue Diamond Society (BDS), a leading LGBTI organization in Nepal, for counseling.
By this time, BDS, founded by ex-lawmaker Sunil Babu Pant in 2001—himself an openly-gay man—had already helped Shah a great deal. And Karki decided she too would give it a shot, and was soon volunteering there, eventually joining in full-time as an outreach educator for the organization in 2009.
Shah, meanwhile, was appealing to the Army Special Court and the Supreme Court regarding their case. But the military court in July 2008 rejected his appeal, claiming the expulsion had been on disciplinary grounds and not on the basis of sexual orientation. The apex court, on the other hand, ordered the army in June 2011 to revise the military justice system, but did not address Shah’s demands of reinstatement.
“If we’d won the case, it would’ve been a big victory for the community and encouraged others to come out,” Shah says.
In Nepal, the judiciary plays a key role in ensuring the rights of sexual minorities, and a landmark ruling delivered by the Supreme Court in December 2007 had ordered the government to scrap all laws that discriminated against people on the basis of gender identity and sexual orientation.
The government has already implemented the ruling by identifying LGBTI community members as ‘third genders’ in citizenship certificates. It also recognized third genders in the census in 2011 and the effect is slowly extending to private sectors as well.
Despite these encouraging strides, homosexuality is still taboo in many areas, forcing LGBTI members to face ostracisation on personal and professional levels. And with political chaos having engulfed the country, the LGBTI movement is in a new crisis. The international rights watchdog Human Rights Watch last month said widespread harassment, up tick in police crackdowns, heavy fines and prolonged detention has contributed to a climate of fear among LGBTI people in Nepal. This was, however, denied by Home Ministry spokesman Shankar Koirala, who claimed such crackdowns or attempts at suppression had not occurred.
Among the issues at present is the fact that the renewal of the BDS’ operating license has been in limbo for about nine months. The District Administration Office (DAO) in Kathmandu has been investigating allegations of corruption against founder Pant, who was said to be drawing salary both from BDS as well as the Constituent Assembly, when he served as a lawmaker between 2008-2012, which the DAO considered illegal. But he has already returned the Rs 950,000 he was paid as a lawmaker, but no moves have yet been made to resume the renewal process.
Similarly, the registration of the design of the building housing their community center was transferred from him back to the BDS under the local administration’s request. Pant says inspections by international donors and audits show no misappropriation, and that the delay was a simple case of prejudice against the LGBTI community on the part of a section of bureaucracy and the government.
Chief District Officer of Kathmandu Basanta Kumar Gautam says they will renew the license of the organization and are studying legal implications. “There are still some biases against third genders in society. But the government makes no such distinctions,” he says.
Karki and Shah now find themselves at the forefront of the struggle to save the BDS, an organization that has made unmatched strides in protecting and furthering LGBTI rights in the country. The Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, the Human Rights Watch and the National Human Rights Commission have all asked the government not to delay the renewal. Karki and Shah are hopeful that international pressure, coupled with their own efforts, will show some positive results.
“The skills of leadership, discipline and dedication that I learned during my training as an army cadet are proving very handy now,” Karki, who has represented the community in international forums in many countries, says.
She is still, however, not keen on revealing her real identity, if only to protect her family. Shah, on the other hand, has no qualms in this regard and is proud of having broken traditional social barriers.
“Like everyone’s parents, mine too dreamt of seeing me as a bride going off to my husband’s house. But now, they’re happy that I’ve brought a bride home instead,” he said while addressing students from Reliance International College in March.

Effects of Smoking While Pregnant

During a pregnancy there are many choices to be made and smoking should not be one of them. Smoking while pregnant can cause major effects before the birth of the child and also in the child’s future. Here are a few effects before the actual birth of the child: 1) Cigarettes contains a large number of chemicals that harm unborn babies. 2) Smoking raises the levels of carbon monoxide in your bloodstream. This gives less oxygen for baby. 3) Nicotine tightens the blood vessels, meaning the oxygen is passed over less effectively to the baby 4) Miscarriage or stillborn.

The risk of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome triples if the mother has smoked during pregnancy. “It is estimated that twenty-five percent of expectant mothers in the U.S. smoke throughout their pregnancies. According to a report from the Surgeon General, twenty percent of low birth weight births, either percent of preterm deliveries and five percent of all perinatal could be prevented by eliminating smoking during pregnancy.”

Not only can smoking cause considerable damage to the unborn baby, but it could affect the baby later in life. Smoking increases the chances of the baby having birth defects. For example, the child might develop severe brain damage. The baby also might be considerably light in weight. All these outcomes are extremely negative and can cause guilt.

Another thing that should be taken into consideration is secondhand smoke. Even though the smoking is not being done firsthand, there is still a big risk. Side effects of secondhand smoke are ear infections, colds, and damage to the lungs. And even though it is not definite that complications during pregnancy might not occur, the chance of putting a child at risk for the sake of smoking a cigarette should not be taken.

Women are more likely to stop smoking during pregnancy than at other times in their lives. Programs that encourage women to stop smoking before, during, and after pregnancy deserve high priority for two reasons: during pregnancy women are highly motivated to stop smoking, and they still have many remaining years of potential life.

Abortion

Abortion gives the mother an option not to have a baby if she doesn’t chooses not to have one. In some cases, abortions can save the life of the mother. Poor families greatly benefit from abortions. For those still in school, abortions give teenagers a normal life, and would help them succeed in school. These are reasons why abortions are good for the American Society. Abortions can save the life of the woman because a baby could cause a great health risk to the mother. This risk involves death, or permanent damage to the female. An abortion should be performed at this point because the death of a fetus is better than the death of the mother. A woman is a full person, while the fetus is not. Once the fetus has been removed, and there’s no more risk to the mother. Then, she can try an have another baby if she wishes. Poor women are more likely to have more abortions than that of the middle, or upper class. Poor women don’t have the financial means to take care of the child, therefore abortions would help them. Also, a lot of the poor women already have children to take of, and adding one more would greatly burden the already financially troubled parent. Again, allowing them to have an abortion would help them. Once the fetus has been aborted, then the parents can concentrate on their other children.

Teenagers are more affected by having a baby these days than it would have been 100 years ago. There are more responsibilities for the average teenager, they have to study, work, and go to school for an entire day. This leaves almost no time to take care of a child. Also, the teenager would have to most likely support the child by herself. This alone is a greater responsibility than anything in her life. All her time would be put into taking care of the child, that she would have almost no time to study. The consequence of this is the teen dropping out of school, and not even getting a high school diploma or finishing her year in college. Without a high school diploma, the likeliness of the teen finding a job that offers other than minimum wage is slim. This could mean that she is almost living in poverty, and barely making it on her own. Let’s now consider that the father of the child is helping with the duties that come along with a baby. He would most likely be working minimum wage just trying to make ends meet. If he still attended school, than he would probably be getting poor grades. Then he would stuck in the same situation as the mother. Teenagers just don’t have the time or financial resources to care for a child. Even if they receive welfare, that’s really not enough to pay for the child

Since teens are going to have sex anyways, then they should be taught about it. Most schools do offer sex education programs to the students. Sex education is good because it teaches teens about sex, along with how to be safe. The class can also teach the teenagers about the consequences of having sex, or unsafe sex. Teaching students about sex can reduce the rate of unwanted pregnancy’s and reduce the chances of acquiring a sexually transmitted disease. In these programs, using a condom is taught, and alternatives to it are discussed. But, the best way not to get pregnant, is to not have sex at all. If the mother was in grave danger from the unborn child, than I don’t think there’s anyway that the baby can be saved. Leaving the fetus in the mother could complicate the health of the mother. Her reproductive system could get damaged, and she could even die. If the baby were to get aborted, then she could try to have another one if she is ready.
Even though poor women are more likely to get abortions, they don’t necessarily need to have them done. There are other alternatives for the pregnant woman to turn to. They can give the baby up for adoption, or they can have the baby and go on welfare until they find a job. But, since the parents are poor, then it might be hard for them to even pay for the medical bills. Teenagers have many options that they could turn to. If the parents were willing, then they could take care of the child while their teen attended school. The mother of the could opt to give the baby up for adoption. This is a good alternative because it doesn’t leave any responsibilities to the teen. Plus the baby would be given to a couple that really wants to be parents.

In conclusion, abortion is good because poor women probably can’t afford a child. So, an abortion would be good for them. An abortion can help save the mother from harm, and possible death. It could allow a teenager to carry on with her normal life, without dealing with the hardships of taking care of a baby.

Systems Development Life Cycle

• Project planning: Establishes a high-level view of the intended project and determines its goals. The importance of the planning stage is to determine what technologies exist or can be developed to solve the problem that has been identified. An economic feasibility analysis is used to determine if an organization can afford the system and if the system will provide a return on the investment. An operational feasibility analysis examines the human element of the proposed system to determine how willing and able its employees are to change. A schedule feasibility analysis tries to determine if the proposed development time line is practical. This is the foundation for the traditional systems development life cycle.
• Systems analysis: Refines project goals into defined functions and operation of the intended application. Analyzes end-user information needs. This stage uses many tools and techniques including requirements gathering, structured analysis, and computer-aided systems engineering tools. Requirements gathering are used to gain a detailed understanding of a company’s problem and how the proposed system will solve it. Systems analysts review documents, interview employees and observe the business in action to gain a better understanding of the business. To aide in understanding the business, data flow diagrams are developed. These diagrams are used to show how data flows through the organization. This acquired information can be used to achieve business process reengineering as well as a road map for the programming team. Once the development team knows what the new system requires to solve the problem the systems design stage can begin.
• Systems design: The goal of this phase is to describe desired features and operations in detail including what specific functions it should have and what parts it should contain. There are two main areas of system design. A logical systems design is a document that tells the system what to do. A physical systems design is a document that describes the actual components the team will use to achieve functionality. The physical design specifies all of the actual components that will be used to implement the logical design. Once the systems development team and the client have agreed on a system’s design is frozen which means no one can make changes to it at this point. This is done to prevent scope creep and feature creep which can lead to a project going over budget and schedule. Now that the organization knows the design it can begin building it.
• Development: The programming process is usually the most difficult and time consuming. Programmers use three types of logical structures when they write programs: sequence, selection and loop. The sequence structure indicates that the computer processes programming statements in the order in which they occur. The selection structure allows execution to pass one of two alternative paths based on whether certain conditions are met. A loop structure indicates that the program should continue to execute until certain conditions exist. Now the system is built but must be tested before it is implemented.
• Testing: Brings all the pieces together into a special testing environment, then checks for errors, bugs and interoperability. Before a company can run a system, it must test the system to ensure that is works properly. Stub testing begins with the programmers. The programmer checks to confirm that the module handles incorrect data the way that it should. The development team does unit testing to ensure that the modules work correctly. The last part of testing is for the development team to test the new software a long with other components, such as the database and networks, of the new system. This part of this phase is called systems test which has two parts: verification and validation. Verification testing runs the system in a simulated environment with simulated data. Validation testing ensures that the system is working properly in the real work environment using real data. Once a team has developed and tested a system it is now ready to be implemented into the working environment.
• Implementation: The final stage of initial development, where the software is put into production and runs actual business. This can be seen as the most difficult phase because it requires employees to use an unfamiliar system. There are a number of implantation approaches. A company performs a direct cutover implantation when it quickly changes an old system to new one. This would usually take place over a weekend. The advantage to this approach is that the system becomes available immediately. In the parallel conversion approach, the new system is installed along side the old system and employees can move to the new system gradually. With pilot testing a company installs new system at only one location in the department. Once the company has passed testing in this area the system will be installed throughout then organization. With staged conversion a company implements parts of the new system at a time. Once one part is working correctly another part is added until the entire system is in place.
• Maintenance: The maintenance phase accounts for as much as 80% of the total cost of an information system. Some errors go undetected in the testing phase. It is not until employees using the system encounter problems that these problems are detected. Correcting these problems is one of the most important parts of the systems maintenance. End-user support entails responding to user questions and providing ongoing training for employees. System enhancements requests are reviewed to ensure feasibility and determine how the enhancement will impact the system.

The Declining Environment

Environment problem is nowadays a buzzword in many people’s mind. Unlike other factors, from a politician, a philosopher to a war, this is an enormous international problem, affecting any country regardless of boundaries. Human beings are hence urged to join together in this common struggle for life.
Neither a press-group nor a dramatic event can attract such widespread concerns as an environmental issue.
A politician, with all his credentials, for example, can at most affect citizens in his country through legislations and policies. Meanwhile, the declining environment may soon affect countless people from different countries by no words but a number of hazardous actions.
A philosopher, in another instance, is likely to receive both believers and skeptics for his theories and discoveries. The results of natural disasters, on the other hand, are true and direct enough to convince any conservative person.
Also, no matter how serious it is, a war can involve only a few related countries. In contrast, it takes harmful natural impacts from this country, or continent, just a little time, to reach any other one either through the air, the water or the wind.
If each country keeps ignoring environmental tragedies in its neighbor ones, such threats as pollution, natural disasters or shrinking land may soon become reality in its own area.
During the last ten years, China has been growing at a thrilling speed. This, in consequence, led to seriously polluted habitat. But no action had been taken by other countries until European scientists found out a massive amount of noxious smokes imported to their land through the Atlantic. There was, then, more evidence for the increasing number of patients with cancers in this green continent.
Besides, natural disasters happening in one country may in fact leave great influence on another. Its topography and climate will endure a silent, yet, gradual change. This is apparently a domino effect, challenging the existence of any nation.
Furthermore, one country faces up with shrinking or uninhabitable land means that another is hindered by uncontrollable immigration. Its social condition will therefore become chaotic, which is by no means up to its expectations.
On the opposite end of the scale, many problems can be handled with fewer difficulties by the cooperation between countries. When exchanging methods and experiences on an environment’s puzzle, countries will help each other save time and money, as well as reduce large – scale damage to the nature. Moreover, in unity, global citizens will be impulse to take a responsible attitude in maintaining the common habitat. There have been successful mutual supports between Japan and Korea, as well as the Commonwealth of Nations in reducing toxic fumes from factories. It is understandable why they are enjoying such healthy living environment.
On balance, environmental problems, which do not place impacts on a peculiar area but put many others under threat, should be conquered by contributed efforts of any member. It is the only way to avoid a tragic ending for human beings as a whole.

Smoking of Tobacco

Tobacco smoking first started sometime in the 1400s. It was invented by natives in the Bahamas Islands. Instead of just pulling out a paper rolled cigarette, they had pipes. One end of the pipe was filled with burning tobacco leaves, while the other end of the pipe was where they inhaled the smoke. Many people all over the world today have been taken into this habit. Worldwide, there are approximately one billion smokers. This habit is extremely addicting because of a substance called nicotine found within each cigarette. Once a person is sucked into this dirty habit, it is hard for them to quit.

The smoke from a cigarette, consists of 100 million more harmful substances than the most polluted air. It also contains chemicals in it that many people don’t know of. Some of these chemicals include acetone (nail polish remover), ammonia (a household cleaner), cadmium (battery acid),and formaldehyde (preserves dead bodies). All of these chemicals are found in just one cigarette. These chemicals aggravate asthma and allergies by directly bothering the respiratory membranes. Because of this, it can trigger the production of excess mucus and cause sensitive airways in the lungs to tighten.

Tobacco smoking is the largest cause of death that can be prevented. Everyday, about a few thousand people die from this fatal death stick. This means that every eight seconds. This kills more people than the worst epidemic diseases. Tobacco even affects your physical appearance. It can make your skin wrinkled and older looking, cause your teeth to turn yellow, and give your breath and clothes a dingy odor. Researchers say that smokers who smoke 10-20 cigarettes a day live on an average of five years less than non-smokers. To look on the bright side, if smokers quit, it is possible that the damage done to the lungs can be repaired.

Cigarette smoke is so dangerous and so powerful that it can cause 17 different kinds of cancer. The cancer that is the most obvious and seen most often is lung cancer. Other places where cancer can sprout are in the throat, gullet, mouth, esophagus, pancreas, stomach, kidney and the bladder. Not only does tobacco smoke cause cancer, it can cause chronicle cough and bronchitis. However, tobacco smoke doesn’t only cause many harmful and fatal diseases, but it also influences things like asthma, angina, hay fever, allergic rhinitis and shiver. Inhaling the smoke does a lot of harm to both hearts and veins. The nicotine inside of cigarettes, which is the ingredient that makes them addicting, damages digestive organs because it demolishes the balance of acids in the stomach. For people whom already have asthma, active and passive smoking may worsen asthma attacks. For people with allergic rhinitis or hay fever, tobacco smoke may trigger or aggravate nasal symptoms.

The most dangerous time to smoke is when a women around you is pregnant or when you are pregnant yourself. The reason for this is that it the smoke can cause the baby to have birth defects. When the baby is born, it could weigh 150-250 grams less. The baby could even be born less developed. On a recent survey, it showed that women who smoke have more spontaneous abortions than the women who do not smoke do. For children, some evidence suggests that parental smoking may increase the risk of developing asthma. Also, children that are living with smokers have reduced lung function and increased school absences that are due to colds, bronchitis, and other conditions of the respiratory system.

In summary, tobacco smoking is an important health hazard. It is the largest cause of death that can be prevented. In 1995, over half a million deaths in the United States of America, and about two million deaths in all of the developed countries were contributed to smoking. People who smoke are not only affecting themselves, but the ones they love around them.

Overpopulation And The Environment

I believe that the number of humans that live on this planet is the main problem. We should develop new processes for stabilizing the current population. Overpopulation is becoming one of the most prominent problems facing human civilization. This complicated, pervasive issue is a problem of the utmost importance for the people of all the races, religions and nationalities. With our endless need of new information we should be able to develop unique process to end these problems.

Our planet now provides for approximately 5.8 billion people with projections of around 10 billion people by the end of the year 2050. Two billion of these are extremely poor, the poorest of which live in absolute poverty and misery. The affects of overpopulation on human society are numerous. Suffering from  a lack of resources, people are often driven to war when they became to populated for their available resources.

Increasing amounts of food, energy, water and shelter are required to fulfill the needs of today’s society. The amount of land required for food production will grow increasingly larger while the amount of available land will grow increasingly smaller. The resources required to maintain this rapid development is putting a strain on our current supplies of energy.

Much of our energy is derived from the burning of fossil fuels, releasing millions of tons of toxins into the atmosphere cause harm to the environment as well as those who live around these locations. Currently they are groups with the sole purpose of saving the environment. This mission to save the world is one that eventually all of us should get on board with. Because we as a society should be concerned about our future as well as the future of our children. After all we are only renting this planet from our children and we should look out for their best interests.  

Prevent Global Warming

The planet where human nature is having their homes for shelter, food and education is called by name Earth. These days the Earth is getting hotter and hotter on a daily basis as before thousand years ago and also difficult to blame for the activity of human nature.
There are many such things which we can give more effort to control and prevent from global warming. One method of controlling the global warming is recycling and helps in cleaning the surrounding of the whole universe. If people who are residing on Earth give up smoking as well as using the private vehicles that is cars the most and starts using the solar energy and rechargeable energy instead of fuels, can help in reducing the global warming.
On this matter Government is also keen interested in using the other source of energy which do not affect the human nature as well as the human beings that is in renewable energy which helps in reducing the green house gas and global warming. The oceans is also one of the source for the energy which provides sufficient amount of energy for our requirements and the smaller ones gives more in compare to old ones or current design. we can use the energy that is natural or man made ones.
On the other hand Government is also interested on wind powers energy and other renewable energy to combat the global warming and the green house gas. Turbine can produce 80 times on it’s operating hours to build, operate and dismantle. As per the public point of view wind power energy is good and the environment of the wind farms can be barred for development.

Cultural Environment

The invention of the television and its advancement through technology in our world has affected the cultural environment significantly. It has affected the way we act, perceive things, and even changed our lives as a whole. The cultural environment in today’s society is totally different from the time period before the invention of the television. First, the television has affected the pre-existing cultural institutions. Before the television was invented most of the children all over the world would play outside with their friends after school. Children would be playing ball in the streets, buying candy at the convenience store, and so on. Ever since the television was invented, more and more children are watching television rather than playing outside after school. In today’s society, it’s even worse since children are usually glued to the television all day. This eliminates their chance for some exercise and to meet new people. The invention of the television also has changed the meaning of family night. Back before the television, families used to come together one night a week to play board games and to socialize. Ever since the television was invented, less and less families come together to play games. If they do come together, it is usually in front of the television. This changes the meaning of family night because now families don’t socialize as much because they watch television.
This technology has also affected the way people see themselves and their place in the universe. Television has become such an integral part of society that people are confusing fantasy with reality. Violence seems to be in almost every television show in today’s society. This excessive violence makes society accustom to it and therefore people don’t believe violence is as bad as it is when it happens. “Although few anti-television activists would agree that excessive television viewing can exculpate a murderer, a huge body of evidence — including 3,000 studies before 1971 alone — suggests a strong connection between television watching and aggression” (Stossel 3). This is concrete proof that the television has changed people’s attitudes and the way they see themselves in society. Television has also changed people’s view of the world. Now with the television, people can get news from around the world everyday at almost any time. Before the television, people could only get the world news everyday from the newspaper. News from the television is also more current because the television makes it possible to get breaking news to the people whereas the newspaper can only report the news that happens before it is printed. People in today’s society can potentially have more knowledge about the world events due to the invention of the television. Television also gives people the opportunity to view other parts of the world. Without the television, people would not be able to see other parts of the world without travelling there. If they would read something about another part of the world, they could only imagine it in their minds. With the invention of the television, people could now see parts of the world that was not possible before without travelling around the world.
The invention of the television has changed society and the cultural environment dramatically. Ideas are now expressed differently, the world is seen in a new way, and pre-existing cultural institutions have been changed due to the integration of the television into society. There are both good and bad changes that have occurred due to the invention of the television, which is common of all technologies. There is no doubt that the television has changed the way people act and perceive things in society.

Advertising Analysis

We see them in the subways, bus stops, magazines, and television, but what do they mean? How do they manage to catch our attention? Advertisements often find ways to sell their products by psychologically manipulating people. The advertising industry makes us envious of others and convinces us to be unhappy with what we have. Steve Madden ads usually feature women with absurdly large heads and hourglass bodies which try to force the audience to wonder what the ad is about. One of these odd ads appears in the March/April 2001 issue of Twist Magazine. It features a young woman with a big head helplessly running, as an airplane zooms over her at an abandoned airport. There are three characteristics within the ad that contribute the whole idea that Steve Madden shoes, clothes and accessories will improve your self image. The main purpose of Steve Madden ads is to suggest to its viewers that they will feel good about themselves by wearing his products. The model’s big head conveys self-esteem and self-pride and she challenges the consumer to look as good as she does. The young woman wears a face of apprehension and is running away from her old self to start her new confident life with Steve Madden products. The sleek black leather jacket on top of a sexy white shirt, short enough to reveal her stomach and curvaceous hips together with her tight low rider blue jeans, black pointy high boots, and trendy black bag complete her fashionable outfit. The embellished woman’s physique is aimed to appeal to women and girls between the ages of 16 through 25 in search of funky, hip, sexy clothes.
Steve Madden likes to think of his clothes of as being distinctive and he illustrates his idea by setting an abandoned airport as the background for the ad. There is not a body in sight as the model runs across the old gum stained pavement. This calls attention to the idea that by wearing Steve Madden buyers isolate themselves from everyone else. She is too proud and conceited and cannot imagine being compared to anyone else. The Steve Madden logo in the ad also contributes to the main idea of the ad. It could have been anywhere on the page, why the sky? . Steve Madden ads always have their logos imprinted on the sky to imply that the “sky is the limit” with Steve madden products (Liza). Steve Madden’s use of the airplane flying across the model’s head are to let his consumers know that the only thing to stop them from accomplishing the look they have in mind is the limit the set upon themselves. Steve Madden will help its buyers attain the appearance they have always envisioned.
Furthermore, it can be said, in Bertrand Russell’s words that “Good advertisements will either make the audience envious of the lifestyle being advertised, or will generate within the audience the desire to be envied by others” (Harris). Many advertisers aren’t as successful but Steve Madden manages to persuade his buyers to buy his products through his eccentric ads.

The Lottery

All people are unique in their own ways, however have contradictory characteristics such as good and evil. Some people have a soul in which the good side is more dominant, and others have a more dominant bad side. The lottery is a way for the characters in the story to reveal the hidden evil of their souls.

One example of this is portrayed through the eagerness and the willingness to participate in the lottery. One of the characters says that they feel like its only been a few weeks since the last lottery, which gives the impression that the lottery is something to look forward to. This shows that the evil side of these people enjoys inflicting pain on others.

Mrs. Hutchinson was eager to get to the lottery herself. She shows the evil in her character by wishing the pain that she must live through, and perhaps even die as the outcome, on others. She does not want to accept the fact that she was chosen. Mrs. Hutchinson says that it is “not fair”, regarding the final results of the lottery. The lottery was something she looked forward to until the outcome of the lottery was forced upon her.

The entire population of the town participates in the tradition of the lottery. This shows that the whole community releases a part of their evil onto others. They are all eager to see someone beaten with rocks, however none of them want it to be them. Even the town’s children were involved in the savage ritual. After Tessie Hutchinson was chosen some of the towns children gave some pebbles to her son so he too could participate in the torture of his own mother. This horrible tradition is placed into the lives of the descendants of the town, so it is passed on from generation to generation. These people are taught to let the evil inside of them loose during the lottery.

The evil in the souls of the towns people is brought out during the lottery. It is more of an evil that is held in, rather than hidden. This evil comes out once a year for the lottery and takes over the mind and body of all of its participants, which makes them see this ritual as a normal tradition that has been kept alive for many years. Everyone has some evil in them, but the lottery gives people a chance to accentuate this evil and to let it loose.

Music

Why do people walk down a busy city street ignoring others and not talking? Why are they ignorant to the homeless asking for change just to survive? And why do cross walk signs become life savers? I can tell you what’s wrong with these people, music. Music works wonders for anyone and everyone. There is no way around music. It is everywhere and playing at all times. From people blasting music with twelve inch sub woofers in their car driving past on the street to the proud parents of a newborn playing Beethoven and Mozart as it lies in its crib, you cannot avoid music. Every since I was little I would listen to music. The first music I remember listening to is country. My grand pap and I would go fishing early in the morning and he would play country music for the two hour trip up to Ruminating Lake then two hours back on the way home. I will not lie; his music put me asleep fast. After finding how soothing something music was, I would wake up for school and eat my cereal as I watch MTV or VH1. The songs would stick in my head and I would sing them all day long. I also realized that I was more awake during school.
Now that I am older I still do that same routine. I wake up and listen to music and walk out the door with a smile on my face and a rhythm to sooth my mind. As I am typing this paper I am also . It has engulfed and made a huge impacted on my life at different periods. At times I would be down and out I will listen to soft music and take a drive on windy roads in the woods. When my friends and I go out we will listen to anything from The Temptations to the newest rap and pop songs. In high school I use to play baseball. Every bus ride to the opponent’s field, I would listen to loud rock music and rap music. After thirty minutes of music, my adrenaline would be rushing and yet I would be relaxed at the same time. I would take infield practice and think of beats and lyrics in my head as caught the baseball. The beats and lyrics were so automatic that catching and fielding the baseball would become automatic too.
Another great time and place for music is when you are with a girl. The perfect songs will make her night wonderful. The classic Barry White songs set the ideal mood for the evening. I even made burned CD’s for my friends for when they needed to sweep a girl off their feet. We called them the “Softie CD’s”. At the same time these soft songs can turn into hell. If the girl stood you up, you will be listening to Usher alone wishing you had your hard rock CD. I listen to music whenever I can. I cannot go one day without listening to some sort of rhythm, beat, or song. The effects that music has had on my life are unimaginable. I think it will be interesting how music shapes out in the rest of my life.

Illegal Drugs

The product is illegal drugs. The people who deal these drugs are
criminals. That’s what makes the drug business different then any other.
*Alcohol is a drug, yet adults are allowed to use alcohol products.
*Nicotine is a drug, yet adults are allowed to use many different forms
of tobacco products, all which have tobacco in them.
*The drug Caffeine can be found in many everyday items, like soda candy
bars. Think of how many cops we would need if caffeine products were
illegal.
Why are drugs like cocaine, marijuana and heroin illegal? Cocaine,
marijuana and heroin are illegal because most people think that these controlled
substances are simply to dangerous for anyone to use. They the effects of these
substances ruin the body and mind so badly and quickly that no one should try
them.
We have law against drug is so that the people who use dangerous drugs
are putting themselves at a very high risk. They risk their health and their
lives. Since they are breaking laws they also but themselves at the risk of
getting arrested. They risk their freedom and their future all for drugs.
Each year drug use is the cause of a large number of accidents at home
in the office and on the road. Everybody pays the price of drug abuse: more cops
and prisons more hospitals and treatment centers and many lives lost.
But drug users hurt themselves more than anybody because they are
supporting violent crimes in the drug world.
Just by using drugs they become part of that drug world. They are
already committing a crime. But the relationship between drug use and crime often
means that drug users go on to commit crimes like robbery, burglary, assault, and
murder.
Drug addiction means that the brain is saying I need drugs now it must
have drugs. This often means that addicts commit crimes to get money for
drugs. Studies show that drug use increases criminal behavior:
*64% of violent crimes involve someone on drugs.
*75% Of prison inmates have a drug use history.
*24% of addicts start dealing drugs to support their habit.
Studies also show that drugs play a big part in youth and crime:
*more than 83% of youth in prison have used drugs.
*40% of youth in prison for serious crimes were on drugs at the time of
the crime.
*More than 40% of youth in prison used drugs before the age of 12.
Armed patrols Search and destroy missions and helicopter surveillance.
Sounds like Americans at war, well this goes on every day on our own home soil
and the battle fields are our national parks and forests and the enemy is
marijuana.
Marijuana is the most common used illegal drug in the U.S.
* Over 65 million people have tried it.
*More than 25 million people have used it in the last year.
*Over 11 million people use it once a month.
*more than 6 million use daily.
If one is caught bringing drugs over the MN or an international border
is charged with a felony and can’t spend more than 35 years in prison or a
payment that can’t be more than $1,250,000 or both.
If a person is caught selling a drug than they may be sentenced no more
than a year and or a fine of 3,000
In 1970, the U.S. congress passed the Drug Abuse Prevention and Control
Act. this new act created five categorizes of different drugs depending on how
dangerous they were. It also made drug laws tougher than they were in the past.
In 1981 the U.S. declared war on drugs, Congress passed more acts to toughen
federal anti-drug laws.
But new laws and tougher penalties were not enough to stop drug trade.
In fact they didn’t really do anything while all these new law s were passed
between the 70’s and 80’s the use of drugs went up. Americans were using 60% of
the world’s supply of illegal drugs. U.S. drug sales were over 100 billion dollars a year.

In the past years there have been some signs that anti-drug laws are
working. A survey done by the National Institute on Drug Abuse indicates that
the number of people using drugs has dropped. But it will take more than just
tough laws to stop the drug trade. It will take money to help pay for cops and
the military operations, for medical and treatment centers, and new ways to
teach people about drugs and their laws like D.A.R.E.
It will take more than just money too. It will take more than prisons,
cops, treatment centers and learning programs. The people are the main problem.
And it will take the people who know the relationship between drugs and crime
and care enough to do something about it. It will take people who care enough to
say no to drugs.

Drug Policy

The war on drugs and the violence that comes with it has always brought around a hot debate about drug legalization. The amount of violence that is associated with drugs is a result from harsher drug laws and prohibition.
The business of buying and selling drugs comes with high transactions costs. The dealer cannot risk being caught or scammed so he buys a gun to defend himself from the police and other dealers. The buyer of the drugs does not to be killed for his money if the dealer gets greedy so he buys a gun for himself. Now we have two people that if it came down to it, would kill for their crack rocks. Also, if a buyer got a bad crack rock or got less than he paid for, he cannot go the police or file a complaint. He must take matters into his own hands resulting in violence. If drugs were legalized, they would be safer in the sense that the crack-head that needs his daily crack rock would not have to deal directly with dangerous drug dealers and criminals and risk getting shot for his money. Instead, he can go down to the local “drug store” and get his drugs safely.
Drugs will even become safer for those who are willing to use them. Government regulations on drug quality will make the drugs more pure, and potent, taking the harmful additives that some drug makers put in. Like cigarettes, warnings would probably be posted on drug packages stating “The use of crack may be harmful to your health.” As well as on windows of the stores that sells the drugs. An age limit to buy drugs would probably be 21. Clean, sterile needles would also be provided to heroin users and stop the spread of diseases such as AIDS from contaminated and dirty needles.
I think that if drugs were legalized, use of legal drugs would tend to rise because it would be easier to obtain them and it may encourage people to try them out. However, the increase would only be for a short time period. In the long run, drug use would decrease because all the users that are using more drugs because they are easier to get would overdose and kill themselves and set an example for other people thinking about trying drugs. Another reason why drug use would decrease is that the reason why some people use drugs is because they are illegal. Once you take away the fun of breaking the law, people would not be as inclined to try drugs. If you look at the use of alcohol and tobacco, their use has decreased because people are more aware of the risks involved. This may also apply to drugs.
Some people who might be opposed to the legalization of drugs would be drug enforcement because the officers who specialize in restricting the distribution of drugs would be out of a job. Parents would also probably like drugs to stay illegal for their children’s sake. The harder it is to get them, the better. I personally disagree. After reading all of this about drugs and learning that the violence that is associated with drugs stems from the prohibition of them, I am beginning to think that legalization may be a good thing for society.

Reason Why Teens Use Drugs

Drug use is the increasing problem among teenagers in today’s High schools. Ever since the drug war of 1900, drugs have been a major problem in today’s society. Use of drugs such as opium, morphine, and their derivatives were quite common place in nineteenth century America. While most students of contemporary high school drug education programs know about the use of coca leaves in early Coca-Cola and the opium trade with China, the matter of drug addiction at the turn of the century is much more extensive than usually acknowledged. It is estimated that by 1975 there were somewhere in the neighborhood of 550,000 regular users of addictive drugs in the U.S. While this number may seem large (taking into consideration the smaller population of the country in 1970s as compared to today) it is actually surprisingly small even when such drugs were available over the counter. Cocaine, morphine, laudanum, and heroin were all available in drug stores and through the mail. Until the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906, banned the sale and distribution of these such drugs In local shops and stores ,and through the mail. Today, all of these drugs are illegal Including the most popular drug among teens and in the united states, marijuana. Most drug use begins in the preteen and teenage years, these years most crucial in the maturation process. During these years, teenagers are faced with difficult tasks of discovering their self identity, as well as their sexual roles, becoming independence, learning to cope with authority and searching for goals that would give meaning to life. Drugs are readily available and teens are curious and venerable, and there is peer pressure to experiment, escape from conflicts. The use and reasons of drugs by teenagers is usually the result of a combination of several factors such as social, mental, and economical problems .Drugs addiction among Teens usually in turn lead to a depressed life and suicide.

Drugs and Nightclubs

Drugs are illegal in most countries and the extermination of drugs has always been one of our most important worldwide issues. Ending the existence of drugs is one of the toughest and most complicated goal we face. With all the effort we put into the issue, why is there little success? Lack of effort is not a major reason the attempts are failing. It is the lack of understanding that leads to the misdirection and failure of the attempts. As long as a strong desire to use drugs exists, drugs won’t exterminate. Why people take drugs? Drugs symbolize power, states, freedom, and the ultimate ? high? in our world. Drugs can help people achieve higher states, more power and their success. We are not easily deterred from using drugs because we refuse to give up our dreams and goals, and often are willing to do whatever it takes along the path to success. The desire for the drugs is worth the risk of being caught. In reality, the risk of getting caught is extremely few. Therefore, many people are willing to risk getting caught because the benefits of drugs outweigh the risks. ? Drugs are always been closely linked to the entertainment industry. Nightclubs have become the ideal place to administer drugs. In this essay I would discuss ? Club drugs? which are used popular in nightclubs.
GHB (gemma hydroxybutyrate) is surfacing on the street, in private nightclub and on the body builder scene. A central nervous system depressant, GHB has been legally used as and anesthetic, and for treatment of major. The main date rape drug is Rohypnol. It is similar to Valium, but then times more powerful. Rohypnnol is illegal in the United States, but it is used in other countries prescribed for sleeping disorders. It is usually found in a small odorless, tasteless white pill that can be crushed up and easily dropped into a drink. it dissolves fast making hard to detect. It can also be found in a liquid form, which are rare, but can make it harder to detect. Effects of Rohypnol usually occur within twenty to thirty minutes. The effects include drowsiness, dizziness, and being disoriented. It also affects motor skills such as walking, talking and balance. It makes one feel like very drunk. This is why it is becoming known as a club drug. Rohypnol is used mostly as an enhancer drug, which means that it is taken to enhance the effects of another drug. One health risks increase with he consumption of alcohol, which can lead to death or coma. Rohypnol has been found to be physically addictive and it does have bead withdrawals. The main side effect of the drug is a memory loss of four to ten hours, during which time a person can be rendered helpless. Another date rape rug is GHB (gamma hydroxybutyrate), known as ? liquid ecstasy? ? liquid G? or grievous bodily harm. GHB is also used as an enhancer drug, because it has no hangover and usually can not be detected four to five hours after dissension. Also it has no documented long-term effects, or physiological addiction. It is usually found as a clear liquid. GHB used to be legal, it was used by body builders to help build muscle, but was banned in 1990 for public safety concern, because it could become harmful when mixed with other drugs. Effects of the drug are usually felt in fifteen to twenty minutes. The effects are different for each person. GHB caused short-term amnesia. Common effects are nausea, dizziness, confusion and drowsiness. Health risks also increase with the consumption of alcohol or other drugs.

Marijuana The Drug

Drugs are a major debate it the world we live in today. Drugs are gaining more and more attention. More and more people are using drugs then ever before and there is no decrease in the amount of drug users. One of the most commonly used drugs is marijuana. In today’s world marijuana is growing and is looking to be legalized in California for medical uses only but that will lead to many other problems in the near future. Marijuana is the most used drug in the U.S. besides tobacco. Marijuana gives people the feeling they like and want but when it is used to much they have to use more of it to get the high in which they desire. It effects your brain by making the THC disrupt the nerve cells in the part of the brain where memories are formed. This makes it harder for the user to recall events and makes it harder to learn. Marijuana is addictive to some people. About 100,000 people seek treatment for marijuana use each year. Marijuana is usually smoked as a cigarette (called a joint or a nail) or in a pipe or a bong. Recently, it has appeared in cigars called blunts which are larger and, therefore, more dangerous. Marijuana is a green, brown, or a gray mixture of dried, shredded flowers and leaves of the hemp plant (Cannabis sativa). There are many slang names for marijuana such as pot, weed, boom, gangster, and Mary Jane. This drug causes Timing, coordination, alertness, and performance to be affected in a negative way. Marijuana has THC in it which is absorbed by fatty tissues in various organs. THC can be detected using urine tests and it will stay in your system for seven to a couple of weeks.
Teens are the reason that drugs are a problem in the U.S.. About one in six 10th graders report that they are current marijuana users. Fewer then one in five high school seniors are current users. Some people who use this drug feel nothing but some feel relaxed and high. After smoking it users may get a sudden quenching for a drink and get very hungry. This is called the munchies. Short Term effects of marijuana include memory problems and learning problems, distorted perception, trouble when thinking and problem solving, loss of coordination, increased heart rate, anxiety, and panic attacks. THC can damage cell tissues in you immune system causing users to be more open to diseases. To be able to tell if someone is high they may be dizzy and have trouble walking, be silly and giggly for no reason, bloodshot eyes and have a hard time remembering things. These effects usually end in a few hours and the user gets very sleepy. A big issue being raised in California is the legalization of marijuana for medical purposes only. The old laws would still be in effect. If you were found using it you would have to have your medical doctors prescription for it to get free from jail or a fine. Still, a cop could bust you for growing it and cuff you because they don’t know that your doctor prescribed it for you. This law is a state law and is called Proposition 215. This law has been turned down for the last two years. This year all the old laws that have been turned down have been put together to make a great law. This law actually passed November 5, 1996.
Marijuana aids in the treatment of cancer, anorexia, chronic pain, spastic, glaucoma, arthritis, migraine, or any other illness for which marijuana provides relief. The American Cancer society says NO to marijuana because it is not a substitute for appropriate anti-nausea drugs for cancer chemotherapy and vomiting. We see no reason to support the legalization of marijuana for medical use. Smoking marijuana is also not approved by the FDA for any illness. These corporations both say that they what a different drug to do the same thing but developing it will take an estimated 4 billion dollars. People what to know why some other drugs can be used like morphine but marijuana can’t. In me and my partners personal option we believe that it is wrong to smoke it or use it in any way, shape, or form. We have never used in and probably never will. We only have one body and we should make the most of it and not mess it up by doing stupid things that will affect us as we get older. To me doing any kind of drugs is stupid and a waste of time. I want to live my life without any worries of medical problems. Any kind of drug that is illegal is bad for your health but if recommended by a doctor does it make them any better. Drugs will always be around in my option. The government can’t demolish drugs or marijuana but they can try to educate children while they are younger to tell them that drugs are bad and should not be taken. With the passing of this law marijuana will become legal in California. Other states can adopt this law if they would like. Education is the key to the end of drugs and the beginning of a new era. Just say NO.

Essay – Telecommunications Industry

The telecommunications field is a vast field that contains terms and acronyms which can be confusing to those who are not familiar with the terminology. Therefore, the following paragraphs will compare and explain some common terms used when referring to the telecommunications field and will entail some old technology with some new. To be included within the discussion is comparisons of telephone dialing sounds, Wide Area Telecommunications Services (WATS) versus leased lines, Private Branch Exchanges (PBX) or Centrex, and the International Organization for Standardization-Open Systems Interconnection (ISO-OSI) model.
What are the differences between Rotary and Dual Tone Multi-frequency (DTMF)? Rotary dialed phones were round and “spun” to make a phone call. The disk had the numbers 0-9 and one had to place a finger in the hole next to the number they wanted to select and turn the dial completely around then let go. When the disk spun back to its original position it would create a series of frequency pulses that corresponded to the number dialed and was known as “pulse dialing.” The phone company switching network would recognize the number of “clicks or pulses’ sent and would switch to the appropriate line.
On the other hand DTMF uses a “tone dialing’ method to place a call. A push button phone uses the “tone” method of dialing. Each time a number button is pushed on the phone, the circuitry in the phone makes a two toned sound for each number and sends that sound to the phone company switching network for validation and to be patched through to the correct line.
What are Wide Area Telecommunications Service (WATS) and leased lines and how are they different? Wide Area Telecommunications Service is a special “dedicated” line for individuals or company’s that want to have to luxury of having a designated number that would allow for incoming calls to be received at no charge to the customer. Furthermore the WATS system usually comes with a discounted price for its use due to the expected large volume of calls. Leased lines are different from WATS in the sense that they are borrowed lines and are used only by those who have leased the lines. What this means is that the line is open for use by the leaser anytime the leaser needs the line to communicate with. Additionally, the phone company does not use the line that is leased to conduct other phone services on and leaves the line “open” for the leasing company only to use for communication (Mitchell, 2008). On the other hand, a WATS line is used repeatedly by the phone company while still being used by the client who pays for the WATS.
How do Private Branch Exchange (PBX) and Centrex differ? A PBX is a company centered switching network for in-house calling. The company would typically have a few dozen phones within the network and each with a need to be able to complete in-house and outside phone calls. With a PBX an employee could call another office within the company by simply dialing a few digit phone extensions rather than a full phone number. Additionally, when these types of calls are made it does not interfere with outside phone lines or take up any of the space of outside phone lines. All the phone lines are maintained within the company itself with just a few lines to connect to the outside phone network for outside calls.
A Centrex (Central Office Exchange) is different from a PBX simply by the location of the switching operations. A Centrex switching is off site from the company and is run and operated by the local telephone company. With that said, the PBX equipment would have to be bought, installed, and maintained by the company where with a Centrex all that would be done by the providing telephone company.
The International Organization for Standardization-Open Systems Interconnection (ISO-OSI) model is comprised of 7 layers and is used to standardize the networking industry. Each layer of the model communicates with only the layers that are above, below, or the identical layer on another device. The purpose of the layers is to exchange data with another layer or device. Basically, each layer of the model builds on another layer by adding information until all the layers have been connected with and added their specific information. Once that has been completed the receiving device will take the information and in a reverse mode, take the layers specific information as it passes it through the layers. With that said, the seven layers are: Application (Implements the communication components with the software), Presentation (Ensures transferred information is readable), Session (Manages the communications segments), Transport (Accepts data from higher layers and segments it for travel), Network (determines the IP address), Data Link (defines the network and protocol information), and Physical (determines the physical characteristics of the data).
In conclusion, each of the terms discussed are important when working in the telecommunications field. Without the knowledge of what equipment is used to comprise a network and how such equipment came into play then one would not be successful in building a network. Hopefully, the explanations and definitions of WATS, PBX, Centrex, Rotary, DTMF, leased lines, and the ISO-OSI model have helped to give a better understanding of the telecommunications field.

Education in Nepal

On this Modern era education plays the vital role in developing the nation and it’s people. if we do not have proper education we will not be able to survive in this world of modern technology. if we have the proper education then we can survive. on the other hand the education in Nepal is slowly and steady changing and these days most of the private colleges and schools are using the modern method of teaching and is well equipped with modern equipment as well as the modern technologies in compare to the colleges that is run by the government. In government schools and colleges we not be able to fine the modern teaching methods and rare case we can find having all the facilities. Out of 100% as per my view 75% people are well educated and rest percentage are not educated and this the reason falling behind and if we can have 100% then the country as well as the nation will move forward like other developed nations. the society will be well educated as well as civilized. The people will move faster like the jet planes and reached the target with in a short period of time.

Load Shedding in Nepal

The country Nepal is rich in water resources and also second in the world and we the people of Nepal are not able to utilize the resources fully that is 100% and also the Government is falling behind to utilize totally to reduce the load shedding. The reason is that we do not have the proper rules and regulation that means Government and the Ministry of Electricity to attract the foreign projects for the utilization’s of water resources to produce the electricity for the people of the country Nepal .

The projects that we have not enough to produce the electricity and can’t handle the load and on a daily basis it’s increasing and people want to use more electricity and we have many devices that can’t be used without electricity. Just to handle the load of the electricity on a daily basis we the residents have to face black out for long hours and is not bearable. due to load shedding the industries can’t even work and produce goods for the country’s utilization’s and there will be huge amount of loss and not able to get profit and also same time not able to pay tax which can be used for the development.

On this Matter the Government of Nepal as well as the Ministry of Electricity must be keen interested in completing the uncompleted projects and also same time study for the further projects that helps in reducing the load shedding and have a brighter days instead of living in the darkness.

Town Planning in Nepal

The country named Nepal is a land locked country and is surrounded by Himalayas in the Northern parts and also rich in the field of natural beauties and also rich in agriculture as well.. India and china are your neighbor countries and they reach the highest level in development in all the sectors in compare to your country. The infrastructure is densely populated in city are in compare to remote villages.

On this matter the Government of Nepal should implement the strong laws as well as the rules and regulation and to be implemented by the public, if not then there will be a serious problem to the general public who are residing within the town itself. Now onwards if the Government of Nepal and the people must take care and should move forward for the better town planning and to live a luxurious life. As per the Government rules and regulations the building infrastructure should be build up and side by side we need to take care and maintain our natural beauties of greenery so if we can do the country will grow up with in a short period of time.

On the other hand the roads should be build up as the standards set up by the Government and the Road and Transport department and the traffic will follow smoothly and able to reach the destinations with in a short period of time. If not then there will be crowded everywhere and takes longer time what we the public do not accept it.

This helps in looking well planned and developed Nepal and sounds beautiful and looks beautiful.