Poem – The Twin Verses – Gautam Buddha 

What we are is the result of what we have thought, 

is built by our thoughts, is made up of our thoughts. 

If one speaks or acts with an impure thought, 

suffering follows one, 

like the wheel of the cart follows the foot of the ox. 
What we are is the result of what we have thought, 

is built by our thoughts, is made up of our thoughts. 

If one speaks or acts with a pure thought, 

happiness follows one, 

like a shadow that never leaves. 
‘They insulted me; they hurt me; 

they defeated me; they cheated me.’ 

In those who harbour such thoughts, 

hate will never cease. 
‘They insulted me; they hurt me; 

they defeated me; they cheated me.’ 

In those who do not harbour such thoughts, 

hate will cease. 
For hate is never conquered by hate. 

Hate is conquered by love. 

This is an eternal law. 

Many do not realise that we must all come to an end here; 

but those who do realise this, end their quarrels at once. 
Whoever lives only for pleasures, 

with senses uncontrolled, 

immoderate in eating, lazy, and weak, 

will be overthrown by Mara, 

like the wind throws down a weak tree. 
Whoever lives not for pleasures, 

with senses well controlled, 

moderate in eating, has faith and the power of virtue, 

will not be overthrown by Mara, 

any more than the wind throws down a rocky mountain.
Whoever would put on the yellow robe 

without having cleansed oneself from impurity, 

disregarding self-control and truth, 

is not deserving of the yellow robe. 
But whoever has cleansed oneself from impurity, 

is well grounded in all the virtues, 

and is possessed of self-control and truth, 

is deserving of the yellow robe. 
Those who imagine truth in untruth 

and see untruth in truth 

never arrive at truth but follow vain desires. 

Those who know truth as truth and untruth as untruth 

arrive at truth and follow true desires. 
As rain makes its way into a badly roofed house, 

so passion makes its way into an unreflecting mind. 

As rain does not make its way into a well roofed house,

so passion does not make its way into a reflecting mind. 
Wrong-doers grieve in this world, 

and they grieve in the next; they grieve in both. 

They grieve and are afflicted 

when they see the wrong they have done. 
The virtuous find joy in this world, 

and they find joy in the next; they find joy in both. 

They find joy and are glad 

when they see the good they have done. 
Wrong-doers suffer in this world, 

and they suffer in the next; they suffer in both. 

They suffer when they think of the wrong they have done. 

They suffer even more when going on the wrong path. 
The virtuous are happy in this world, 

and they are happy in the next; they are happy in both. 

They are happy when they think of the good they have done. 

They are even happier when going on the good path. 
Even if the thoughtless can recite many of the scriptures, 

if they do not act accordingly, 

they are not living the holy life, 

but are like a cowherd counting the cows of others. 
Even if the faithful can recite 

only a few of the scriptures, 

if they act accordingly, 

having given up passion, hate, and folly, 

being possessed of true knowledge and serenity of mind, 

craving nothing in this world or the next, 

they are living the holy life.

Poem – Punishment – Gautam Buddha 

Everyone trembles at punishment; everyone fears death. 

Likening others to oneself, 

one should neither kill nor cause killing. 
Everyone trembles at punishment; everyone loves life. 

Likening others to oneself, 

one should neither kill nor cause killing. 
Whoever seeking one’s own happiness 

inflicts pain on others who also want happiness 

will not find happiness after death. 
Whoever seeking one’s own happiness 

does not inflict pain on others who also want happiness

will find happiness after death. 
Do not speak anything harsh. 

Those who are spoken to will answer you. 

Angry talk is painful, and retaliation will touch you. 

If you make yourself as still as a broken gong, 

you have attained nirvana, for anger is not known to you. 
Just as a cowherd with a staff 

drives the cows into the pasture, 

so old age and death drive the life of living beings. 
A fool committing wrong actions does not know 

that the stupid person burns through one’s own deeds, 

like one burned by fire. 
Whoever inflicts punishment 

on those who do not deserve it 

and offends against those who are without offense 

soon comes to one of these ten states: 

cruel suffering, infirmity, injury of the body, fearful pain, 

or mental loss, or persecution from the ruler, 

or a fearful accusation, loss of relations, 

or destruction of possessions, 

or lightning fire burning one’s houses, 

and when one’s body is destroyed the fool goes to hell. 
Neither nakedness nor matted hair nor mud 

nor fasting nor lying on the ground 

nor rubbing with dust nor sitting motionless 

purify a mortal who is not free from doubt and desire. 
Whoever though dressed in fine clothes, lives peacefully, 

is calm, controlled, restrained, pure, 

and does not hurt any other beings, 

that one is holy, an ascetic, a mendicant. 
Is there in the world anyone 

who is so restrained by modesty 

that they avoid blame like a trained horse avoids the whip? 

Like a trained horse when touched by a whip, 

be strenuous and eager, and by faith, by virtue, by energy, 

by meditation, by discernment of the truth 

you will overcome this great sorrow, 

perfected in knowledge, behaviour, and mindfulness. 
Engineers of canals guide the water; 

fletchers make the arrow straight; 

carpenters shape the wood; 

good people mould themselves.

Poem – The Brahmin – Gautam Buddha 

Stop the stream valiantly, drive away the desires, O Brahmana! 

When you have understood the destruction of all that was made, 

you will understand that which was not made. 
If the Brahmana has reached the other shore in both laws (in restraint and contemplation), 

all bonds vanish from him who has obtained knowledge. 
He for whom there is neither this nor that shore, nor both, him, 

the fearless and unshackled, I call indeed a Brahmana. 
He who is thoughtful, blameless, settled, dutiful, without

passions, and who has attained the highest end, 

him I call indeed a Brahmana. 
The sun is bright by day, the moon shines by night, the warrior 

is bright in his armour, the Brahmana is bright in his meditation; 

but Buddha, the Awakened, is bright with splendour day and night. 
Because a man is rid of evil, therefore he is called Brahmana; 

because he walks quietly, therefore he is called Samana; 

because he has sent away his own impurities, 

therefore he is called Pravragita (Pabbagita, a pilgrim). 
No one should attack a Brahmana, but no Brahmana (if attacked) 

should let himself fly at his aggressor! Woe to him who strikes a 

Brahmana, more woe to him who flies at his aggressor!
It advantages a Brahmana not a little if he holds his mind back from the pleasures of life; 

when all wish to injure has vanished, pain will cease. 
Him I call indeed a Brahmana who does not offend by body, word, 

or thought, and is controlled on these three points. 
After a man has once understood the law as taught by the Well- 

awakened (Buddha), let him worship it carefully, 

as the Brahmana worships the sacrificial fire. 
A man does not become a Brahmana by his platted hair, by his 

family, or by birth; in whom there is truth and righteousness, 

he is blessed, he is a Brahmana. 
What is the use of platted hair, O fool! what of the raiment of 

goat-skins? Within thee there is ravening, 

but the outside thou makest clean. 
The man who wears dirty raiments, who is emaciated and covered 

with veins, who lives alone in the forest, 

and meditates, him I call indeed a Brahmana. 
I do not call a man a Brahmana because of his origin or of his 

mother. He is indeed arrogant, and he is wealthy: but the poor, who 

is free from all attachments, him I call indeed a Brahmana. 
Him I call indeed a Brahmana who has cut all fetters, who never 

trembles, is independent and unshackled. 
Him I call indeed a Brahmana who has cut the strap and the thong, 

the chain with all that pertains to it, 

who has burst the bar, and is awakened. 
Him I call indeed a Brahmana who, though he has committed no 

offence, endures reproach, bonds, and stripes, 

who has endurance for his force, and strength for his army. 
Him I call indeed a Brahmana who is free from anger, dutiful, 

virtuous, without appetite, who is subdued, 

and has received his last body. 
Him I call indeed a Brahmana who does not cling to pleasures, 

like water on a lotus leaf, 

like a mustard seed on the point of a needle. 
Him I call indeed a Brahmana who, even here, knows the end of his 

suffering, has put down his burden, and is unshackled. 
Him I call indeed a Brahmana whose knowledge is deep, 

who possesses wisdom, 

who knows the right way and the wrong, 

and has attained the highest end. 
Him I call indeed a Brahmana who keeps aloof both from laymen and 

from mendicants, who frequents no houses, and has but few desires. 
Him I call indeed a Brahmana who finds no fault with other 

beings, whether feeble or strong, 

and does not kill nor cause slaughter. 
Him I call indeed a Brahmana who is tolerant with the intolerant, 

mild with fault-finders, and free from passion among the passionate. 
Him I call indeed a Brahmana from whom anger and hatred, pride 

and envy have dropt like a mustard seed from the point of a needle. 
Him I call indeed a Brahmana who utters true speech, instructive 

and free from harshness, so that he offend no one. 
Him I call indeed a Brahmana who takes nothing in the world that 

is not given him, be it long or short, small or large, good or bad. 
Him I call indeed a Brahmana who fosters no desires for this 

world or for the next, has no inclinations, and is unshackled. 
Him I call indeed a Brahmana who has no interests, and when he 

has understood (the truth), does not say How, how? 

and who has reached the depth of the Immortal. 
Him I call indeed a Brahmana who in this world is above good and evil, 

above the bondage of both, free from grief from sin, and from impurity. 
Him I call indeed a Brahmana who is bright like the moon, pure, 

serene, undisturbed, and in whom all gaiety is extinct. 
Him I call indeed a Brahmana who has traversed this miry road, 

the impassable world and its vanity, who has gone through, and reached 

the other shore, is thoughtful, guileless, free from doubts, free from 

attachment, and content. 
Him I call indeed a Brahmana who in this world, leaving all desires, 

travels about without a home, and in whom all concupiscence is extinct. 
Him I call indeed a Brahmana who, leaving all longings, travels 

about without a home, and in whom all covetousness is extinct. 
Him I call indeed a Brahmana who, after leaving all bondage to men, 

has risen above all bondage to the gods, and is free from all and every bondage. 
Him I call indeed a Brahmana who has left what gives pleasure and 

what gives pain, who is cold, and free from all germs (of renewed 

life), the hero who has conquered all the worlds. 
Him I call indeed a Brahmana who knows the destruction and the 

return of beings everywhere, who is free from bondage, welfaring 

(Sugata), and awakened (Buddha). 
Him I call indeed a Brahmana whose path the gods do not know, 

nor spirits (Gandharvas), nor men, 

whose passions are extinct, and who is an Arhat (venerable). 
Him I call indeed a Brahmana who calls nothing his own, whether 

it be before, behind, or between, 

who is poor, and free from the love of the world. 
Him I call indeed a Brahmana, the manly, the noble, the hero, the 

great sage, the conqueror, the impassible, the accomplished, the awakened. 
Him I call indeed a Brahmana who knows his former abodes, who 

sees heaven and hell, has reached the end of births, is perfect in 

knowledge, a sage, and whose perfections are all perfect.