Abortion

Abortion gives the mother an option not to have a baby if she doesn’t chooses not to have one. In some cases, abortions can save the life of the mother. Poor families greatly benefit from abortions. For those still in school, abortions give teenagers a normal life, and would help them succeed in school. These are reasons why abortions are good for the American Society. Abortions can save the life of the woman because a baby could cause a great health risk to the mother. This risk involves death, or permanent damage to the female. An abortion should be performed at this point because the death of a fetus is better than the death of the mother. A woman is a full person, while the fetus is not. Once the fetus has been removed, and there’s no more risk to the mother. Then, she can try an have another baby if she wishes. Poor women are more likely to have more abortions than that of the middle, or upper class. Poor women don’t have the financial means to take care of the child, therefore abortions would help them. Also, a lot of the poor women already have children to take of, and adding one more would greatly burden the already financially troubled parent. Again, allowing them to have an abortion would help them. Once the fetus has been aborted, then the parents can concentrate on their other children.

Teenagers are more affected by having a baby these days than it would have been 100 years ago. There are more responsibilities for the average teenager, they have to study, work, and go to school for an entire day. This leaves almost no time to take care of a child. Also, the teenager would have to most likely support the child by herself. This alone is a greater responsibility than anything in her life. All her time would be put into taking care of the child, that she would have almost no time to study. The consequence of this is the teen dropping out of school, and not even getting a high school diploma or finishing her year in college. Without a high school diploma, the likeliness of the teen finding a job that offers other than minimum wage is slim. This could mean that she is almost living in poverty, and barely making it on her own. Let’s now consider that the father of the child is helping with the duties that come along with a baby. He would most likely be working minimum wage just trying to make ends meet. If he still attended school, than he would probably be getting poor grades. Then he would stuck in the same situation as the mother. Teenagers just don’t have the time or financial resources to care for a child. Even if they receive welfare, that’s really not enough to pay for the child

Since teens are going to have sex anyways, then they should be taught about it. Most schools do offer sex education programs to the students. Sex education is good because it teaches teens about sex, along with how to be safe. The class can also teach the teenagers about the consequences of having sex, or unsafe sex. Teaching students about sex can reduce the rate of unwanted pregnancy’s and reduce the chances of acquiring a sexually transmitted disease. In these programs, using a condom is taught, and alternatives to it are discussed. But, the best way not to get pregnant, is to not have sex at all. If the mother was in grave danger from the unborn child, than I don’t think there’s anyway that the baby can be saved. Leaving the fetus in the mother could complicate the health of the mother. Her reproductive system could get damaged, and she could even die. If the baby were to get aborted, then she could try to have another one if she is ready.
Even though poor women are more likely to get abortions, they don’t necessarily need to have them done. There are other alternatives for the pregnant woman to turn to. They can give the baby up for adoption, or they can have the baby and go on welfare until they find a job. But, since the parents are poor, then it might be hard for them to even pay for the medical bills. Teenagers have many options that they could turn to. If the parents were willing, then they could take care of the child while their teen attended school. The mother of the could opt to give the baby up for adoption. This is a good alternative because it doesn’t leave any responsibilities to the teen. Plus the baby would be given to a couple that really wants to be parents.

In conclusion, abortion is good because poor women probably can’t afford a child. So, an abortion would be good for them. An abortion can help save the mother from harm, and possible death. It could allow a teenager to carry on with her normal life, without dealing with the hardships of taking care of a baby.

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Systems Development Life Cycle

• Project planning: Establishes a high-level view of the intended project and determines its goals. The importance of the planning stage is to determine what technologies exist or can be developed to solve the problem that has been identified. An economic feasibility analysis is used to determine if an organization can afford the system and if the system will provide a return on the investment. An operational feasibility analysis examines the human element of the proposed system to determine how willing and able its employees are to change. A schedule feasibility analysis tries to determine if the proposed development time line is practical. This is the foundation for the traditional systems development life cycle.
• Systems analysis: Refines project goals into defined functions and operation of the intended application. Analyzes end-user information needs. This stage uses many tools and techniques including requirements gathering, structured analysis, and computer-aided systems engineering tools. Requirements gathering are used to gain a detailed understanding of a company’s problem and how the proposed system will solve it. Systems analysts review documents, interview employees and observe the business in action to gain a better understanding of the business. To aide in understanding the business, data flow diagrams are developed. These diagrams are used to show how data flows through the organization. This acquired information can be used to achieve business process reengineering as well as a road map for the programming team. Once the development team knows what the new system requires to solve the problem the systems design stage can begin.
• Systems design: The goal of this phase is to describe desired features and operations in detail including what specific functions it should have and what parts it should contain. There are two main areas of system design. A logical systems design is a document that tells the system what to do. A physical systems design is a document that describes the actual components the team will use to achieve functionality. The physical design specifies all of the actual components that will be used to implement the logical design. Once the systems development team and the client have agreed on a system’s design is frozen which means no one can make changes to it at this point. This is done to prevent scope creep and feature creep which can lead to a project going over budget and schedule. Now that the organization knows the design it can begin building it.
• Development: The programming process is usually the most difficult and time consuming. Programmers use three types of logical structures when they write programs: sequence, selection and loop. The sequence structure indicates that the computer processes programming statements in the order in which they occur. The selection structure allows execution to pass one of two alternative paths based on whether certain conditions are met. A loop structure indicates that the program should continue to execute until certain conditions exist. Now the system is built but must be tested before it is implemented.
• Testing: Brings all the pieces together into a special testing environment, then checks for errors, bugs and interoperability. Before a company can run a system, it must test the system to ensure that is works properly. Stub testing begins with the programmers. The programmer checks to confirm that the module handles incorrect data the way that it should. The development team does unit testing to ensure that the modules work correctly. The last part of testing is for the development team to test the new software a long with other components, such as the database and networks, of the new system. This part of this phase is called systems test which has two parts: verification and validation. Verification testing runs the system in a simulated environment with simulated data. Validation testing ensures that the system is working properly in the real work environment using real data. Once a team has developed and tested a system it is now ready to be implemented into the working environment.
• Implementation: The final stage of initial development, where the software is put into production and runs actual business. This can be seen as the most difficult phase because it requires employees to use an unfamiliar system. There are a number of implantation approaches. A company performs a direct cutover implantation when it quickly changes an old system to new one. This would usually take place over a weekend. The advantage to this approach is that the system becomes available immediately. In the parallel conversion approach, the new system is installed along side the old system and employees can move to the new system gradually. With pilot testing a company installs new system at only one location in the department. Once the company has passed testing in this area the system will be installed throughout then organization. With staged conversion a company implements parts of the new system at a time. Once one part is working correctly another part is added until the entire system is in place.
• Maintenance: The maintenance phase accounts for as much as 80% of the total cost of an information system. Some errors go undetected in the testing phase. It is not until employees using the system encounter problems that these problems are detected. Correcting these problems is one of the most important parts of the systems maintenance. End-user support entails responding to user questions and providing ongoing training for employees. System enhancements requests are reviewed to ensure feasibility and determine how the enhancement will impact the system.

The Declining Environment

Environment problem is nowadays a buzzword in many people’s mind. Unlike other factors, from a politician, a philosopher to a war, this is an enormous international problem, affecting any country regardless of boundaries. Human beings are hence urged to join together in this common struggle for life.
Neither a press-group nor a dramatic event can attract such widespread concerns as an environmental issue.
A politician, with all his credentials, for example, can at most affect citizens in his country through legislations and policies. Meanwhile, the declining environment may soon affect countless people from different countries by no words but a number of hazardous actions.
A philosopher, in another instance, is likely to receive both believers and skeptics for his theories and discoveries. The results of natural disasters, on the other hand, are true and direct enough to convince any conservative person.
Also, no matter how serious it is, a war can involve only a few related countries. In contrast, it takes harmful natural impacts from this country, or continent, just a little time, to reach any other one either through the air, the water or the wind.
If each country keeps ignoring environmental tragedies in its neighbor ones, such threats as pollution, natural disasters or shrinking land may soon become reality in its own area.
During the last ten years, China has been growing at a thrilling speed. This, in consequence, led to seriously polluted habitat. But no action had been taken by other countries until European scientists found out a massive amount of noxious smokes imported to their land through the Atlantic. There was, then, more evidence for the increasing number of patients with cancers in this green continent.
Besides, natural disasters happening in one country may in fact leave great influence on another. Its topography and climate will endure a silent, yet, gradual change. This is apparently a domino effect, challenging the existence of any nation.
Furthermore, one country faces up with shrinking or uninhabitable land means that another is hindered by uncontrollable immigration. Its social condition will therefore become chaotic, which is by no means up to its expectations.
On the opposite end of the scale, many problems can be handled with fewer difficulties by the cooperation between countries. When exchanging methods and experiences on an environment’s puzzle, countries will help each other save time and money, as well as reduce large – scale damage to the nature. Moreover, in unity, global citizens will be impulse to take a responsible attitude in maintaining the common habitat. There have been successful mutual supports between Japan and Korea, as well as the Commonwealth of Nations in reducing toxic fumes from factories. It is understandable why they are enjoying such healthy living environment.
On balance, environmental problems, which do not place impacts on a peculiar area but put many others under threat, should be conquered by contributed efforts of any member. It is the only way to avoid a tragic ending for human beings as a whole.

कविता – यात्री – लक्ष्मी प्रसाद देवकोटा

लक्ष्मी प्रसाद देवकोटा Nov 12, 1909 – Sept 14, 1959

लक्ष्मी प्रसाद देवकोटा
Nov 12, 1909 – Sept 14, 1959


कुन मन्दिरमा जान्छौ यात्री, कुन मन्दिरमा जाने हो?
कुन सामग्री पुजा गर्ने, साथ कसोरी लाने हो?
मानिसहरूको काँध चढी, कुन देवपुरीमा जाने हो?

हाडहरूका सुन्दर खम्बा, मांसपिण्डका दिवार !
मस्तिष्कको यो सुनको छाना, इन्द्रियहरूका द्वार !
नसा-नदीका तरल तर, मन्दिर आफू अपार !
कुन मन्दिरमा जान्छौ यात्री, कुन मन्दिरको द्वार ?

मनको सुन्दर सिंहासनमा, जगदिश्वरको राज !
चेतनाको यो ज्योति हिरण्यमय, उसको शिरको ताज !
शरिरको यो सुन्दर मन्दिर, विश्वक्षेत्रको माझ।

भित्र छ ईश्वर बाहिर आँखा, खोजी हिड्छौ कुन पुर?
ईश्वर बस्तछ गहिराइमा, सतह बहन्छौ कति दुर?
खोजी गर्छौ हृदय लगाऊ, बत्ति बाली तेज प्रचुर ?

साथी यात्री बीच सडकमा, ईश्वर हिड्छ साथ
चुम्दछ ईश्वर काम सुनौला, गरिरहेका हात
छुन्छ तिलस्मी करले उसले, सेवकहरूको साथ ।

सडक किनार गाउँछ ईश्वर, चराहरूको तानामा
बोल्दछ ईश्वर मानिसहरूका, पिडा, दु:खको गानामा
दर्शन किन्तु कहिँ दिँदैन, चर्म-चछुले कानामा ।
कुन मन्दिरमा जान्छौ यात्री, कुन नव-देश बिरानामा?

फर्क फर्क हे ! जाऊ समाऊ, मानिसहरूको पाउ !
मलम लगाऊ आर्तहरूको, चहराइरहेको घाउ
मानिस भइ ईश्वरको त्यो, दिव्य मुहार हँसाऊ

भानु भक्त आचार्य

Lively young women with flowers in their hair
walk about me with their friends.
They walk in dreams that are all their own
in this garden-like city that the gods have built.

The rich in this place are uncountable,
each person’s mind is filled with joy.
Kathmandu is an ocean of happiness,
this may be the golden city that the demons once built.

Some places like Lhasa, London, or China,
some dark alleys like those of Delhi,
some places that rival mighty cities of India
are in this city that light has filled.

Swords, hatchets, knives, and khukuris,
decorated by pistols and even rifles,
brave and strong men fill all its streets.
Could another place like Kathmandu exist?

There is no anger, deceit, or falsity,
there is no limit to dharma and nobility,
the Lord of Animals protects this city,
this is the land of God Shiva, the land of immortality.

After so many days I have seen the Balaju water gardens again
and I write that underneath earthly skies this is a Heaven.
All around me are birds that sit or swing upon vines,
maybe with soft voices they intend to steal my mind.

If I can stay here and make many verses
what better thing or pleasure could I ever wish?
If there were a beautiful maiden to dance before me,
Lord Indra’s paradise I would never miss.

From the fifth to the fifteenth century AD, the Khas civilization flourished from its roots in what is now far-west Nepal. Historical documents show that west Nepal, south-west Tibet, and Kumaon and Garhwal of India were united and the Khas language had great influence in these regions during the time of that civilization’s rise. After the fall of the Khas Empire, its language, which evolved into present day Nepali, was considered bastardized and limited to speech. Sanskrit dominated most of the written texts of South Asia and its influence was particularly strong in Nepal.

Brahmins were the teachers, scholars, and priests of the society by virtue of their caste. Their education was Sanskrit oriented since most religious texts of the Hindu religion were in that language.
Bhanubhakta Acharya, born to a Brahmin family in 1814 in Tanahu, received an excellent education with a strong leaning towards religion at home from his grandfather. He led an unremarkable life until he met a grass cutter who wanted to give something to the society so that he could be remembered after death. Bhanubhakta was young, and the grass cutter’s words inspired him to write these words:

He gives his life to cutting grass and earns little money,
he hopes to make a well for his people
so he will be remembered after death,
this high thinking grass cutter lives in poverty,
I have achieved nothing though I have much wealth.

I have neither made rest houses nor a well,
all my riches are inside my house.
This grass cutter has opened my eyes today,
my life is worthless if the memory of my existence fades away.

The grass cutter’s wish to be remembered has been fulfilled: he is more romanticized than Adikabi Bhanubhakta, considered the first poet to write in the Khas, or now the Nepali language. While there were other verses written in the Khas language before Bhanubhakta’s time, some of them were hard to identify as poetry – the quality is sketchy; many of the writers disappeared due lack of a forum where they could foster their talents (sadly the audience was just not there); many wrote poetry that was too heavily Sanskritized. Bhanubhakta was definitely “the” writer who gained the acceptance of a wide range of people and his creations played a key role in popularizing the written form of the Khas language.

The people of the first poet’s time strongly believed that building and renovating temples, shrines, rest houses and taps were acts of dharma. Kings honored their gods with pagoda structures decorated with the best wood, stone, and metal artwork. Every artisan created his piece so it would send a message of goodwill to the palace of Indra, the King of Amarawati, which many considered Heaven. The poor and the rich all tried to give what they could afford to ensure a good afterlife.

Bhanubhakta’s contribution was unique. Children who received an education at the time began their studies with light epics like the Ramayan and graduated to the more complex Upanishads and Vedas in his time. Ram’s heroic exploits were highly impressive to Bhanubhakta, so he decided to make the deity more accessible to the people who spoke Khas. (Since the social order did not encourage literacy, most country people did not understand anything when epics were read out to them in Sanskrit.)

When completed, his translation of the Ramayan was so lyrical that it was more like a song than a poem. However, his creation was not published and he was to die without receiving credit for his contribution. It was later in 1887 that Moti Ram Bhatta found his manuscript and printed it in Benaras, India, where Bhatta published, wrote critiques, and shared his gazal songs with others. Though priests found a rapt audience when they explained what they had been reading, they could not compete with the pleasant flow of Bhanubhakta’s translation. Soon he and his book became household words.

Bhanubhakta did not study Western literature – the West must have been a land of fables for him. The closest city in India was several weeks’ walk away, and there was a huge distinction between those who had been to Kathmandu and those who had not. (When Bhanubhakta first visited Kathmandu, he called it the City of Immortality and compared it to the legendary cities of the gods and demons.) All his ideas and experiences were derived from his native land. This lent such a strong Nepali flavor to his writing that few poets have been able to equal his simple creations in terms of content: a sense of religion, a sense of simplicity, and the warmth of his country are the strongest features of his poetry. Those who read the first lines of the Bhanubhakta Ramayan can clearly feel Nepal in them.

Narad sage went to the Land of Truth one day,
wanting to bring back something good for the creation.
Brahma the Creator was there and the sage
sat at his feet and pleased him with devotion.

The themes which Bhanubhakta wrote about were uncomplicated. Once he went to visit a friend and not only discovered that his friend was on a journey, but that his wife was extremely rude to wayfarers. Guests and wayfarers were never treated casually by the people of his time. Houses were few and far between and if anyone refused to shelter a traveler, the traveler might have to walk several miles before finding another resting place. On top of this, there were many stories of gods who came in the guise of humans seeking shelter and judged the homeowners by their conduct. Bhanubhakta was shocked by her attitude and wrote:

The wife of Gajagharsoti is a source of fortunes that are ill
She has taken leave from us all and is on the way to Hell.

As said before, the credit of discovering Bhanubhakta goes to Motiram Bhatta. Bhatta took pains to collect the miscellaneous works of Bhanubhakta and published a collection. He also wrote the poet’s biography. The search for Bhanubhakta’s works must have been frustrating. He did not write many poems, or few survived if he did. His works appear in fragments that are neither organized nor titled. He concentrated his efforts on the Ramayan, and most of his short poems deal with events which he felt profoundly about or they sing the praises of his gods.

I believe that Bhanubhakta wrote two masterpieces in his life. One, obviously, is the Bhanubhaktey Ramayan and the other is a letter he wrote in verse form to the prime minister while in prison. Some funds had been embezzled while Bhanubhakta worked for the local government. He misunderstood the situation, signed some papers, was made a scapegoat, and put into prison. His health became bad, he was given false hopes of being set free, and for a long time his case was not even heard. So he wrote a petition to the all-powerful prime minister requesting his freedom. The Nepalese language is always respectful; even today most letters begin with, “I humbly request….” Bhanubhakta’s petition made fun of his own situation and convinced the ruler of his innocence.

Everyday I see kind authorities and they get rid of my worries.
I am at peace and at night I watch dances for free.
I do what my friends – mosquitoes, fleas, and bedbugs – say:
the mosquitoes sing and the ticks dance, I watch their play.

I was jobless, wealth-less, my hard-earned food came from the spade,
I served those people so everyone would notice me and give me respect.
Without wavering I served and they were pleased and they gave
overflowing attention that is never, ever, taken away.

I am forty, I have a son who is eight years old.
The time for celebrating his manhood-ceremony is close.
I am rotting inside these four walls, so what can I do, my Lord?
How can I complete the ceremony in this darkness-filled world.

The secret of success should be given by the father,
the lessons of life should be given by the mother,
my child has yet to study the Vedas and serve his teacher,
therefore to you, my Owner, I repeat my prayer.

Even while a great ruler like you own this earth,
a Brahmin’s rituals of manhood are being delayed.
Whose feet do I have to place my sorrow at except yours?
Please take pity on me and decide my case for better or worse.

My body is weak, it is made of grain and water.
How shall I say what has befallen me here?
I have suffered much sorrow, my body grows heavy,
and I have been ill for many days.

I was imprisoned for a long time at Kumarichowk,
illness came upon me there and after much trouble I went home.
When I became well they brought me here,
now you, my Owner, you are my only hope.

Whatever I explained to the authorities in writing is true.
But others’ answers and written proofs, I am told,
have proved wrong all that I have said.
I told them I would pay their fines a thousand-fold.

But they say they have signatures on papers and letters,
they say their witnesses have many more tales.
I said I would not plead, I would rather be false,
I will say anything that gets me outside these walls.

I have no wish to spend the rest of my life in this quarrel.
I have no wish to become a millionaire and fill my house with treasures.
Days pass by uselessly and I cannot comfort myself
if you would decide my case it would be a great help.

I have talked with the warden and he does not speak.
Even if he does, his: “tomorrow, tomorrow,” sounds like a joke.
What are these tomorrows? It would be better to know I won’t be freed.
Many tomorrows passed. Please fill this empty bag of mine, I beg.

Bhanubhakta not only won his freedom with his poem, but was given a bag of money as well. So passed the most dangerous and exciting time of his life. He died in 1868 a simple man who did not know that he would be among the most revered creators of Nepal. Today Bhanubhakta is called Adikabi, the first poet of Nepal. Perhaps, it is only he and Laxmi Prasad Devkota that have become literary gods in this country. The only difference between the two is that Devkota’s works continue to enjoy as much celebrity as the great poet himself while Bhanubhakta’s fame tends to overshadow his writings. The eulogy that Devkota wrote to Bhanubhakta Acharya a century later follows.

The Grass Cutter
by Laxmi Prasad Devkota

A tired young man,
his head on a pillow of rock,
sleeps underneath a tree.
A grass cutter sharpens his blade
near him leisurely.
A sweet song of the forest
steals into a gentle dream.
A heart flies towards Heaven
from the clear world of the living.

Wakening, the bright youth asks,
“What are you doing grass cutter?”
He replies smiling,
“Well, we all will go our way,
every person alone.
There is no one in my heart
for whom to tire my fingers.
So I sell this grass and collect money
to build a rest house and a tap for my people.
If we do not sow, how will anything grow?
And how long will we play with toys?

The sickle dances
and the grass cutter continues,
halting, collecting moments
as if they are bright jewels.
“This forest belongs to the gods
and this is a ripe field to be cut.
I reap my fruit and pay rent to the earth.
This life is two days of sun and shade,
so I give to the gods
the rest house and the watering place.”

Magnetized, the youth stares at him.
It is as if lightning flashed.
Leaves rustle and forest birds
fly into the darkness of the trees.
“Oh”, from somewhere a thin sound,
“The worth of this grass cutter’s life.”

The person who slept in the forest
is shaken awake, he is shaken awake.
His eyes are moist,
his breasts rise and fall,
two tear drops fall upon the rock.
The tear drops from a caring heart
make the forest’s colors strange
and writing on the stone like pure waves
sing beautifully like the birds
of the forest,
the home,
and of the cage.

Surroundings drink the elixir of immortality
and the hills hum among themselves.
Cool floods, and shades of happiness,
heat and thirst are gone today.
O wonderful star of Saturn,
O these first sounds of Nepal.
May such grass cutters fill the grounds
beneath the skies of my Nepal.
This language, strange and endearing,
welcome like the broken voice of a child.
Shy syllables, these first tender sounds,
simple, transparent, and filled with light.

O birthday of my people’s language,
come down! come down to this earth again!
It has been many days since you left
and this whole country has become thirsty again.
What a wonderful past!
Why would the smells not be gentle?
Why would the world not be bright?

भीमनिधि तिवारी

Bhimnidhi Tiwari was born to a young couple Lalnidhi Tiwari and Nanda Kumari Tiwari in 1911. Lalnidhi Tiwari was extremely pleased as he had previously had no sons and organized the Indrasavha drama – an extravagant thing to do at the time – to celebrate the birth.

Bhim Nidhi Tiwari grew up in a traditional home. His mother died when he was seven years old. His poem, called “Dagbatti”, recounts his experience as a child the night he was taken to the ghat burning grounds, his head shaved, and his feeling when fire consumed his mother. When his father died, Tiwari had become 27 years old and his family’s responsibilities came upon him.

For 32 years he served as a government employee. First as a section officer in the Ministry of Education and afterwards an assistant secretary. In 1938, he established Nepal Sahitya Press which was later merged with Pashupati Press. In 1949, he established Nepal Natak Sangh – an organization that worked to uplift the status of Nepalese drama and literature.

Tiwari represented Nepal in the East Asia UNESCO seminar which focused on copyright. In 1967, he accompanied his Late Majesty King Mahendra Bir Bikram Shah on a royal visit to the Netherlands, West Germany, and Karachi. The Russian government also invited him for a three week visit. Later, he visited London, Rome, and Delhi.

Lalnidhi Tiwari was a great inspiration to his son’s writings. Bhimnidhi Tiwari used to say: “The future of Nepalese drama is in doubt. Dramatists are not respected and actors and actresses are desperate.” No doubt, after Bal Krishna Sama, Tiwari contributed much to the enrichment of Nepalese drama. Among his works are Sahanshila Sushila, Adarsha Jiwan, Putali, Kashiwas, Kishan, Nainikaram, Siddhartha Gautam, Nokar, Biwaha, Akanki Pallav, Satya Harishchandra, Aakanki Kali, Silanyas, Matoko Maya, Maharaj, and Indradhanus.

Tiwari also wrote short stories, novels, poems, lyrics, and satires. He believed in social reform and wrote against smoking, drinking, and gambling. His work gives insight into Nepalese lifestyles, culture, mythologies, and history. Bhimnidhi Tiwari received many awards and prizes for his creations. “Yasashvisav” and the historical dramas, “Silanyas” and “Matokomaya” were awarded. He received the Madan Puraskar in 1970 and his Late Majesty King Tribhuvan honored him with the Prakhyan Trishakti Patta, Rajyabisekh Padak, and Gyanpad Sewa. Tiwari died in 1956.

कथा – सम्बन्धका दूरी

उसलाई आश्चार्य लागिरहेको थियो आज राति ओछ्यान पटक्कै बिझाएन । उठ्दा गर्धन र शीर दुखेको थिएन । हलुङ्गो महसुस गरिरहेकी थिई ऊ । उसले ओछ्यानको तन्ना तनक्क तन्काई । बुट्टेदार तन्नामाथि दुई सिरानीहरुलाई मिलाएर राखि । उसलाई आफ्नो ओछ्यानमाथि बुट्टेदार तन्नाको ताजापन साहै प्यारो लाग्छ । अनि टेबुलमाथिको चाँदीको फ्रेम भित्रबाट फोटो बाहिर निकालि स्वयंवरको ।

उसको झण्डै चार बर्ष अगाडि दिवशसँग बिवाह भएको थियो । दिवशको खान्दानी संस्कारमा घरका महिला वर्गले जागिर खाने चलन थिएन । पढेलेखेको परिवार भएर पनि घरका महिलाहरुले बाहिर काम गर्न सरकारी जागिर खान नपाउने परम्परावादी नियमलाई उल्लङ्गघन गर्ने हिम्मत कसैले गरेका थिएनन् । उसको घरमा बिवाहको प्रस्ताव लिएर आउँदा नै केटाकी माईजुले भनेकी थिईन -“घरमा आएका पाहुनालाई पानी पिउन दिदा पनि सर्वत जस्तो मिठो हुने गरी दिने सुन्दर केटी चाहिएको छ । बेस्सरी सम्पत्ति छदैछ । आईमाईले कमाउने चलनै छैन । जेठी र माईली बुहारीले पनि बी।ए। एम।ए। पढेका छन् तर घरै सिगांरेर बसेका छन् ।� आफूहरुले जीवन जिउन बेस्सरी गर्नु परेको दःखको झझल्को शायद मेटिनसकेकोले होला थुप्रो सम्पत्ति छ भन्ने कुराले आमा-बाबु लोभिएर उसलाई बिवाह गरि दिएका थिए त्यस घरमा ।

उसले झण्डै एक बर्ष त पानीलाई सर्वत जस्तै मिठो हुने गरी बाँडि । बिहानै उठ्नु नुहाई -धुवाई सकेर सासुलाई पूजाको तयारी गरिदिनु आफ्नो सिङ्गारपटार गरेर बिहानदेखि रातिको खाना-पिना नसकिन्जेल भान्साभित्रको काममा तल्लिन रहनु उसको दिनचर्या थियो । प्रत्येक दिन बुढा ससुरालाई हेर्न आउने सासु-ससुराका पुराना ईष्टमित्र खेतीबाट आएका हरुवा-चरुवा आफन्त आदिको लस्करै हुन्थ्यो । यति भएपछि घरका बुहारीहरु जति नै पढेका भएपनि भान्साभन्दा बाहिरी कामका लागि निस्कन नै कहाँ सक्थे र यस्तो समय धेरै रहिरहन पाएन । दाजु-भाइबीच व्यवहारमा हानाथाप स-साना कुरामा बढ्दै गएको असमझदारीले दिक्क भएर ससुराले तीनै भाईलाई अलग गरिदिनु भयो । सासु-ससुराले पनि घरको जेठो छोरो नै असल छ भनेर उनैसँग बस्ने निधो गरे । जग्गा निकै थियो तर सबै जग्गामा मोहियानी लागेर आफ्नो भागमा धेरै रहन पाएन । फेरी बुढा ससुराको काजकि्रयामा पनि तेह् जना ब्राम्हणहरुलाई जग्गा नै दान गरिएको थियो । काठमाडौमा पनि आठ रोपनी जग्गा नभएको होईन तर दुईटी छोरीहरुको बिवाहमा धितो राखेर लिएको ऋण समयमा नतिरेकाले लिलामीमा परेको थियो । त्यो ऋण सबै छोराहरुले मिलेर समयमा तिरेका भए राजधानीको त्यत्रो सम्पत्ति लिलामीमा परेर गुमाउनु पर्ने थिएन भन्ने गुनासो ससुराको अझै बाँकी छ ।

दिवश पेशाले अधिवक्ता थिए । मूलघरबाट छुट्टिएको केही महिना पछि नै त्यहाँको बसाई उनलाई असजिलो हुन थाल्यो । वकालतको चर्को आवश्यकता मोफसललाई भन्दा राजधानीलाई छ भन्ने बहानामा आफूलाई राजधानीतिरै सारे । यथार्थत त्यत्ति सजिलो कहाँ थियो र आफूलाई स्थापित गराउन त्यहाँ । निकै समय बितिसक्दा पनि दिवशको वकालत पेशाले गति लिन सकिरहेको थिएन । फलतः व्यवहारमा आर्थिक संकट हावी भएको आभास दुवैमा हुन थालिसकेको थियो । यद्यपी सन्तानको लागि भने खर्च गर्नु परेको थिएन । बिवाह पछि पटक-पटक गर्भ रहेको थियो उसको तर अडिन सकेको थिएन । डाक्टरलाई देखाउँदा औषधि खाएर अझैकेही समय धैर्य गर्न सल्लाह दिएका थिए ।

खान्दनी ढाँचा अनुसार चल्न मधेशको खेतीबाट बर्षमा एकपटक हात लाग्ने सिमित आयले कत्ति नै पो पुग्थयो र दिवशको आम्दानीको स्रोत पनि खासै निश्चित नहुदा संङ्गोलको बसाईको रमझम संझनामा कहिलेकाही आउन थालेको थियो ।

बुबाले घर चलाउनुहुन्थ्यो । तीनै छोराहरुले आम्दानीको केही भाग घरखर्चमा छुट्याउँथे । घर पनि बडेमानकै थियो । अनि सम्पत्तिको भागभण्डा नभएको हुदा आर्थिक अभाव कुन चराको नाम हो कसैलाई थाहा थिएन । त्यसमा पनि सधै कान्छो छोरो भएर खाएको दिवशलाई सपना जस्तो लाग्न थालेको थियो । समय एकैनाशको कहाँ रहन्छ र भाग भण्डासगै पुस्तैनि सम्पन्नता पनि बाँडिन गयो ।

घरको आर्थिक समस्या देखेर धेरै दिनदेखि आफूलाई काम गर्न मन लागेको बारेमा दिवशसँग कुरा राख्न खोजिरहेकी थिई ऊ तर हिम्मत जुटेको थिएन । खान्दानी चलनको हरबखत गर्व गर्ने आफ्नो लोग्ने हुनसक्छ उसको प्रस्तावलाई तुरुन्तै नकार्ने छ । ऊ भित्र डर थियो । “यदि हजुरले अन्यथा नमान्ने हो भने मलाई क्याम्पसमा पढाउने अफर आएको छ के मलाई अनुमति दिनसक्नुहुन्छ “श्रीमानको बोझ घटाउने उदेश्यले एक दिन हिम्मत जुटाएर सोधी उसले । प्रतिउत्तरमा मौनता मात्र छायो ।

आफ्नो क्षमतालाई घरको ढोकाभित्र बन्द गरेर नगर्नु पर्ने दुःख गरेर बस्नु लाचारीको दोस्रो रुप ठान्थी ऊ । तर उसले दिवशकेा अनुमतिलाई धेरै दिन पर्खिई अहँ उसले सहमति जनाएन । परम्परागत मान्यताको खिया लागेको लोग्नेको मानसिकतालाई धिक्कार्न बाहेक अरु के नै गर्न सक्थी र !

पन्ध्र दिन भित्रमा निर्णय नसुनाए अरुलाई ने स्थान दिईने कुरा क्याम्पस प्रमुखले बताएका थिए । बिचरीले त्यो मौका पनि क्याम्पस प्रमुख आफ्नै नाता पर्ने भएकाले पाएकी थिई । दिवशको अनुमतिको पर्खाइमा तोकिएको दिन बितिसक्न लाग्दासम्म पनि उसले कुनै जवाफ पाईन । भोलि बिहानदेखि म पढाउन सुरु गर्दे छु । यो निर्णय मैले घरको आर्थिक बोझ घटाउने बिचारले गरेकी हुँ । हाम्रो भविष्य पनि त छ । मेरो क्षमताले केही गर्न सक्छु भने किन उपयोग नगर्ने � उसले आफ्नो निर्णय सुनाई । “जुन घरकी बुहारी भएर आएकी छौ त्यो घरको संस्कार चालचलनको मर्यादा भित्र रहनु तिम्रो कर्तव्य हो । खान लाउन मैले दिन नसकेका दिन सोचौला ।” दिवश गम्भिर भएर बोल्यो । उसलाई असैह्य भयो । ऊ आफ्नो लोग्नेको तर्कसँग पटक्कै सहमत हुन सकिरहेकी थिईन ।

“स्वावलम्बि हुनुले कुनै पनि घरको मर्यादालाई नकारात्मक आँच पुर् याउँदैन । यदि कसैलाई त्यस्तो लाग्छ भने त्यो मात्र भ्रम हो । दिनभर घरमा निकम्मा भएर बस्न म पटक्कै चाहन्न । बच्चा पनि छैनन् । सकारात्मक भएर सोच्ने हो भने दुवै दम्पत्तिले नोकरी गर्नु सामाजिक प्रतिष्ठाको कुरा पनि हो ।” ऊ आफ्नो अडानमा दृढ रहि । दिवश मात्र सुनिरहेको थियो । दुबैले आफ्नो अडान नछाड्दा समझदारी आखिरमा केही गरी हुन सकेन । दिवशको खान्दानी संस्कार उसका लागि घरको आर्थिक अभावभन्दा महत्वपूर्ण हुन सकेन । अन्तत उसले नोकरी शुरु गरी । नोकरी शुरु गरेकै दिनदेखि दिवशले उसका घरपरिवारबाट कडा प्रतिकि्रया खप्नु परेको कुरा उसलाई सुनायो । त्यसैका कारण दुईबीच चिसोपन बढ्न थाल्यो । हरेक रात नानाथरीका कुराले आफ्नी श्रीमतीलाई सताउनु उसको दैनिकी भयो । घर ढिलो फर्किने कहिले खबरै नगरी दुई-चार दिन बाहिरै बिताउन थालेको दिवशले धेरै भैसकेको थियो । जसलाई उसले सामान्य मान्न थालेकी थिई ।

मंगलबारको दिन थियो त्यो । दिउँसोको एक बजे ऊ क्याम्पसबाट घर फर्किसकेकी थिई । त्यही समय पारेर दिवश घर आयो । हाउभाउले ऊ एकदमै हतारिए झै देखिन्थ्यो । उसले अचम्म मानेर आफ्नो लोग्नेलाई हेरी । ऊ आज बिल्कुलै भिन्न लागिरहेको थियो । आँखामा चमक थियो ओठमा मुस्कान भरिएको थियो । उसले आफ्नो लोग्नेको ओठमा मुस्कान नदेखेको महिनौ बितिसकेको थियो । सायद काम सुरु गरेकै दिनदेखि दिवशको मुस्कान हराएको थियो कि उसलाई हेक्का भने छैन । “एउटा कम्पनी दर्ता गराउनु छ तिम्रो नाममा खै छिट्टै साईन गरिदेउ त ।”हातमा पानीको गिलास लिदै उसले भन्यो । “कस्तो कम्पनी अनि किन यति हतारमा पहिले त केही कुरा गर्नु भएको थिएन ” एक्कासि सधैभन्दा पृथक मुद्रामा देखिएको लोग्नेलाई उसले विश्वाश गर्न सकिरहेकी थिईन । “हत्तेरीका एक घण्टाभित्रमा दर्ता गराएन भने यो मौका अर्कैले लिनेछ । यत्तिका दिन भैसक्यो मेरो टाउको यसले खाएको । कत्ति पीर थियो मलाई यसको । छिटो गर न ! म भरे सबै प्रतिलिपी लिएर आँउछु अनि सबै बेलिबिस्तार लगाउँला ।”जोशिएर बोल्यो ऊ । मानौ ठूलै कम्पनिको मालिक भैसक्यो ।

उसले केही बुझिन । तैपनि लोग्नेमा देखिएको उत्साहलाई कदर गर्नु आफ्नो कर्तव्य ठानेर हतारमै सम्पूर्ण कागजमाथि हस्ताक्षर गरीदिई । अनायशै ऊ पनि आज फुरुङ्ग थिई लोग्नेको स्फूर्ति देखेर । बेलुकी लोग्ने कतिबेला घर फर्केला र सबैकुरा थाहा पाउँला भनेर दिनभरी उसले आँखा बाटोतिरै बिच्छ्याई । साँझ पर् यो घर फर्किने मान्छेहरुको लस्करले बाटो ढाकिएको थियो । मधुरो उज्यालोमा आँखाले भ्याईन्जेल लस्करभित्र उसले दिवशलाई नियाली तर ऊ भेटिएन । कहिलेकाही त रातको एक बजे पनि घर फर्किन्थ्यो । त्यसैले मध्यरातसम्म उसले पर्खिरही । यसरी नै कैयौ दिन र रात पर्खाईमा बिते तर दिवश आएन ।

यसरी अचानक हराएको लोग्ने बीस दिन पछि घर फर्कियो । उसलाई देखेर उसका आँखा रसाएनन् उसलाई खुशीको झट्का पनि लागेन उसले मात्र हेरिरही । त्यसै पनि दुईबीचको सम्बन्ध चिसिदै गएको थियो । त्यसैले लोग्नेको अनुपस्थितिले उसलाई खासै फरक परेको थिएन । तर एका-एक कम्पनी दर्ता गराउन भनेर सहीछाप लिएर हिडेको लोग्नेको लामो अनुपस्थितिले भने उसलाई सताईरहेको थियो । यसपटकको दिवशको आगमन कुनै एक अपरिचितको झै थियो । मानौ उसले पहिलो पटक कसैसँग चिनाजानी गर्दैछ । उसले हातमा बोकेको सानो ब्यागबाट एउटा खाम झिकेर श्रीमती तिर तेस्र्यायो । कौतुहलतापूर्वक हतारिदै खाम खोलि । उसका आँखाले पृष्ठको मध्यतिर दृष्टि नपुर् याउँदै ऊ अवगत भैसकेकी थिई । दिवशले कम्पनी दर्ता गराउन तेस्र्याएका कागजातहरु त सम्बन्ध बिच्छेदका पो रहेछन् । परपुरुषसँगको सम्बन्धका कारण दुईबीचको सम्बन्धलाई अन्त्य गर्न राजी भएको व्यहोरा लेखिएको थियो ।

दिवशले पटक -पटक उसकै सहकर्मी शुरेशको बारेमा प्रसङ्ग उठाएर घरमा तनाव उत्पन्न गराउनाको कारण उसले बल्ल मात्र बुझी । यहाँ उसका ओठहरुले दिवशप्रति आक्रोश व्यक्त गर्ने उत्साह देखाएनन् । तर उसका हर धड्कनले घृणा गरिरहेको थिए । लोग्नेको तुच्छ मानसिकता र दम्भि चरित्रसँग उसलाई प्रतिवाद गर्न मन लागेन । आखिर स्वास्नीको वफादारीतालाई क्षण-क्षणमा लत्याउने एक पुरुषपात्रको आडमा जीवन बिताउन पक्कै सजिलो छैन भन्ने बुझ्न उसलाई अन्ततः धेरैबेर लागेन । त्यसैले सम्बन्ध बिच्छेदको प्रतिवाद गर्नुभन्दा स्वीकार्नु नै उचित ठानी उसले । सम्बन्ध बिच्छेदको निर्णयले क्षतबिक्षत भई पश्चातापको ज्वालामा लपेटिएर ऐया-आत्था गर्दै उसले चिच्याएको हेर्ने प्रवल ईच्छा बोकेर आएको दिवश प्रतिउत्तरमा श्रीमतीको मौनता र आत्मविश्वास देखेर अर्का एकपटक अपमानित हुनपुग्यो । उसले मौनतामै सहजसाथ स्वीकारेको देखेर घरबाट बाहिर निस्कियो । तर उसको मनमा लोग्ने बिनाको भोलि कसरी सामु आईदिने हो भन्ने अज्ञात छटपटीले हलचल मच्चाई रह्यो ।

सम्बन्धबिच्छेदको पहिलो प्रभात । दिनचर्याको शुरुवातमा सधै झै छेवैमा राखेको घडीले किरिरिर्र किरिरिर्र आवाज दियो । हतारिदै उसका आँखा खुले । ऊ मन नलागि-नलागि उठी । हिजो रात बिगतले निकैबेरसम्म मानसपटललाई नमिठो स्पर्श गरेकोले झण्डै आधा रात कटेपछि मात्र उसका नयन जोडिएका थिए । मनमा अनौठो अनुभूति लहरिरहेथ्यो । फरक्क् फर्किएर रात बिताएको ओछ्यानलाई हेरी त्यो साम्रा्रज्यवादीहरुबाट मुक्ति पाएको कुनै राज्यभन्दा कम थिएन ।

बिवाहमा बुबाले मेचीबाट मगाएर दिनु भएको चाँपको पलङ्ग थियो त्यो । सिरानी र डसना पनि सिमलको नरम भुवाका थिए । तैपनि पलङ्गमाथिका ती सिरानी र डसनाले बिगतका रातहरुमा धेरै बिझाए उसलाई । कहिले नरम सिरानी पनि ढुगां जस्तो भएर बिहान उठ्दा गर्धन र शीर असाध्यै दुखेको हुन्थ्यो । कहिले मुलायम डसनामाथि अनायसै पैदा हुने गाँठागुठी बिझाएर रातभर सुत्नै अफ्ठ्यारो हुन्थ्यो । आखिर माईतीको माया न हो विवाहमा पाएको त्यो चिनोलाई फ्याँक्न सकिरहेकी थिईन ।

लोग्नेसँग छुट्टिएको पहिलो प्रभातमा सम्पूर्ण फरकहरुलाई नियाल्न मन लाग्यो उसलाई । उसले झ्यालको पर्दा उघारी । सुन्दर बिहानी पहिले जस्तै कलिलो घामसँगै झुल्किएको थियो । सडकका पेटीहरु त्यसरी नै लमतन्न भई बटुवाको स्वागत गरिरहेका थिए । मन्दिर परिसरमा घण्टीहरु उसरी नै बजिरहेका थिए अनन्तसम्म ध्वनि गुाजाएर । चराहरु खुला आकाशमा उडिरहेका थिए स्वतन्त्रताको उपभोग गर्दै ।

आखिर फरक केहीमा भेटिन उसले । शायद फरक आफूमा पो आयो कि भन्ने डर थियो उसलाई । त्यसैले पलङ्ग छेउ राखेको ठूलो ऐना अगाडि उभिई ऊ । मनले निर्दोष ऐनासँग केही वैमनश्यता नभएको निक्र्योल गरेपनि त्रसित उसका आँखाहरु भने बन्द थिए । उसले बिस्तारै आँखाहरु खोली । त्यो ऐनाले उसलाई यसरी बिम्वित गर् यो कि ऊ मुक्त थिई ।